The effect of even, positive and negative pacing on metabolic, kinematic and temporal variables during breaststroke swimming

Kevin G. Thompson, D. P. MacLaren, A. Lees, G. Atkinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of even, negative and positive pacing on metabolic, kinematic and temporal variables during breaststroke swimming. Nine male swimmers [mean (SD): age 21 (3) years, height 178 (5) cm, body mass 77.2 (6.7) kg, 200 m-time 158.6 (13.6) s] completed a 200-m breaststroke time trial and then 72 h later three paced (even, positive, negative) 175-m breaststroke swims in random order, 48 h apart. The swimmers paced accurately in all trials. The evenly paced trial produced lower post-exercise peak blood lactate and rating of perceived exertion values compared to the positively paced trial (P < 0.05). Peak oxygen uptake was not significantly different between trials (P > 0.05). Heart rate immediately following exercise was lower in the negatively paced trial (P < 0.05) than the other paced trials. Stroke rates were lower during the first half of the evenly and negatively paced trials compared to the positively paced trial (P < 0.01), but no differences were observed between the second half of the trials. Across all trials the stroke count increased as the trials progressed (P < 0.01). Turning times were observed to be shorter during the first half of the positively paced trial compared to the other paced trials (P < 0.01). Even paced swimming appears to be less physically stressful than positively paced swimming during high intensity exercise, as indicated by a lower post-exercise blood lactate concentration, perceived exertion and variability within turning times.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)438-443
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Volume88
Issue number4-5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2003
Externally publishedYes

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Biomechanical Phenomena
Lactic Acid
Stroke
Heart Rate

Cite this

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abstract = "The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of even, negative and positive pacing on metabolic, kinematic and temporal variables during breaststroke swimming. Nine male swimmers [mean (SD): age 21 (3) years, height 178 (5) cm, body mass 77.2 (6.7) kg, 200 m-time 158.6 (13.6) s] completed a 200-m breaststroke time trial and then 72 h later three paced (even, positive, negative) 175-m breaststroke swims in random order, 48 h apart. The swimmers paced accurately in all trials. The evenly paced trial produced lower post-exercise peak blood lactate and rating of perceived exertion values compared to the positively paced trial (P < 0.05). Peak oxygen uptake was not significantly different between trials (P > 0.05). Heart rate immediately following exercise was lower in the negatively paced trial (P < 0.05) than the other paced trials. Stroke rates were lower during the first half of the evenly and negatively paced trials compared to the positively paced trial (P < 0.01), but no differences were observed between the second half of the trials. Across all trials the stroke count increased as the trials progressed (P < 0.01). Turning times were observed to be shorter during the first half of the positively paced trial compared to the other paced trials (P < 0.01). Even paced swimming appears to be less physically stressful than positively paced swimming during high intensity exercise, as indicated by a lower post-exercise blood lactate concentration, perceived exertion and variability within turning times.",
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The effect of even, positive and negative pacing on metabolic, kinematic and temporal variables during breaststroke swimming. / Thompson, Kevin G.; MacLaren, D. P.; Lees, A.; Atkinson, G.

In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 88, No. 4-5, 01.01.2003, p. 438-443.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - The effect of even, positive and negative pacing on metabolic, kinematic and temporal variables during breaststroke swimming

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AU - MacLaren, D. P.

AU - Lees, A.

AU - Atkinson, G.

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KW - Anaerobic

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