OBJECTIVE: This review sought to synthesize evidence examining the effect of exercise on prostate cancer patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).
DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, APA PsychINFO, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Library) from their inception to March 31, 2020. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the effect of exercise on body composition, muscle strength and physical performance. Fourteen RCTs were included. Participant numbers within the individual RCTs ranged from 19 to 163 with heterogeneity in prostate cancer stage (localized and locally advanced diagnoses) with age of participants ranging from 43 to 90 years. The length of the interventions ranged from 12 weeks to 12 months, with the number of sessions per week ranging from 2 to 5. Resistance training intensity ranged from 60% to 90% 1RM and the aerobic training ranged from 60% to 90% HRmax.
CONCLUSIONS: Resistance training and sport (football) in the form of small sided games (SSGs) played an important role in preserving bone mineral density and lean mass as well as improving muscle strength and physical performance outcomes in men affected by prostate cancer undergoing ADT.
IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Multimodal exercise, including resistance exercise and activity that includes repeated sprints (SSGs), benefit the maintenance of bone mineral density and lean mass as well as increase strength and physical performance in men affected by prostate cancer undergoing ADT. Based on this evidence, nurses should coordinate timely referrals to qualified exercise physiologists or physiotherapist with expertise in cancer care.