The effect of oral contraceptive use on salivary testosterone concentrations and athlete performance during international field hockey matches

Blair T Crewther, David Hamilton, Liam P Kilduff, Scott Drawer, Christian J Cook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use on salivary testosterone (sal-T) concentrations and performance-related statistics in international field hockey matches.

DESIGN: A cohort observational study with repeated measures.

METHODS: Twenty-three elite female athletes were monitored across four international field hockey matches over a nine-day period. Salivary T was assessed 45min before each match and several match performance statistics were collated; load (i.e. ratings of perceived exertion×playing time), video-derived positive actions (PA) and negative actions (NA), plus coach and player ratings of performance. The sal-T and match performance profiles of OC (n=7) and Non-OC (n=16) players were compared and predictive relationships tested.

RESULTS: Pre-match sal-T concentrations were 35% higher in the Non-OC than the OC group (p=0.001), representing a large effect size (ES) difference of 0.96. The OC and Non-OC groups did not differ on any performance statistic (p≥0.348) with ES differences from -0.22 to 0.11. Salivary T was positively related to the number of PA during match play (p=0.017). Additional linkage between sal-T and NA emerged, but with opposing slopes (p=0.008) in the OC (B=-1.783, p=0.030) and Non-OC (B=0.692, p=0.127) groups.

CONCLUSIONS: OC usage by elite women athletes was accompanied by lower sal-T concentrations, but the performance outputs of the OC and Non-OC groups were similar. This suggests that the T differences had no impact on match performance. On an individual (population-averaged) level, sal-T was associated with PA and NA during these matches, though the response curves predicting NA differed for OC and Non-OC athletes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-456
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Volume21
Issue number5
Early online date29 Sep 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2018

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Hockey
Oral Contraceptives
Athletes
Testosterone
Contraceptive Agents
Contraception Behavior
Observational Studies
Cohort Studies

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Crewther, Blair T ; Hamilton, David ; Kilduff, Liam P ; Drawer, Scott ; Cook, Christian J. / The effect of oral contraceptive use on salivary testosterone concentrations and athlete performance during international field hockey matches. In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2018 ; Vol. 21, No. 5. pp. 453-456.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use on salivary testosterone (sal-T) concentrations and performance-related statistics in international field hockey matches.DESIGN: A cohort observational study with repeated measures.METHODS: Twenty-three elite female athletes were monitored across four international field hockey matches over a nine-day period. Salivary T was assessed 45min before each match and several match performance statistics were collated; load (i.e. ratings of perceived exertion×playing time), video-derived positive actions (PA) and negative actions (NA), plus coach and player ratings of performance. The sal-T and match performance profiles of OC (n=7) and Non-OC (n=16) players were compared and predictive relationships tested.RESULTS: Pre-match sal-T concentrations were 35{\%} higher in the Non-OC than the OC group (p=0.001), representing a large effect size (ES) difference of 0.96. The OC and Non-OC groups did not differ on any performance statistic (p≥0.348) with ES differences from -0.22 to 0.11. Salivary T was positively related to the number of PA during match play (p=0.017). Additional linkage between sal-T and NA emerged, but with opposing slopes (p=0.008) in the OC (B=-1.783, p=0.030) and Non-OC (B=0.692, p=0.127) groups.CONCLUSIONS: OC usage by elite women athletes was accompanied by lower sal-T concentrations, but the performance outputs of the OC and Non-OC groups were similar. This suggests that the T differences had no impact on match performance. On an individual (population-averaged) level, sal-T was associated with PA and NA during these matches, though the response curves predicting NA differed for OC and Non-OC athletes.",
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The effect of oral contraceptive use on salivary testosterone concentrations and athlete performance during international field hockey matches. / Crewther, Blair T; Hamilton, David; Kilduff, Liam P; Drawer, Scott; Cook, Christian J.

In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Vol. 21, No. 5, 05.2018, p. 453-456.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Crewther, Blair T

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AU - Kilduff, Liam P

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N1 - Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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N2 - OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use on salivary testosterone (sal-T) concentrations and performance-related statistics in international field hockey matches.DESIGN: A cohort observational study with repeated measures.METHODS: Twenty-three elite female athletes were monitored across four international field hockey matches over a nine-day period. Salivary T was assessed 45min before each match and several match performance statistics were collated; load (i.e. ratings of perceived exertion×playing time), video-derived positive actions (PA) and negative actions (NA), plus coach and player ratings of performance. The sal-T and match performance profiles of OC (n=7) and Non-OC (n=16) players were compared and predictive relationships tested.RESULTS: Pre-match sal-T concentrations were 35% higher in the Non-OC than the OC group (p=0.001), representing a large effect size (ES) difference of 0.96. The OC and Non-OC groups did not differ on any performance statistic (p≥0.348) with ES differences from -0.22 to 0.11. Salivary T was positively related to the number of PA during match play (p=0.017). Additional linkage between sal-T and NA emerged, but with opposing slopes (p=0.008) in the OC (B=-1.783, p=0.030) and Non-OC (B=0.692, p=0.127) groups.CONCLUSIONS: OC usage by elite women athletes was accompanied by lower sal-T concentrations, but the performance outputs of the OC and Non-OC groups were similar. This suggests that the T differences had no impact on match performance. On an individual (population-averaged) level, sal-T was associated with PA and NA during these matches, though the response curves predicting NA differed for OC and Non-OC athletes.

AB - OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use on salivary testosterone (sal-T) concentrations and performance-related statistics in international field hockey matches.DESIGN: A cohort observational study with repeated measures.METHODS: Twenty-three elite female athletes were monitored across four international field hockey matches over a nine-day period. Salivary T was assessed 45min before each match and several match performance statistics were collated; load (i.e. ratings of perceived exertion×playing time), video-derived positive actions (PA) and negative actions (NA), plus coach and player ratings of performance. The sal-T and match performance profiles of OC (n=7) and Non-OC (n=16) players were compared and predictive relationships tested.RESULTS: Pre-match sal-T concentrations were 35% higher in the Non-OC than the OC group (p=0.001), representing a large effect size (ES) difference of 0.96. The OC and Non-OC groups did not differ on any performance statistic (p≥0.348) with ES differences from -0.22 to 0.11. Salivary T was positively related to the number of PA during match play (p=0.017). Additional linkage between sal-T and NA emerged, but with opposing slopes (p=0.008) in the OC (B=-1.783, p=0.030) and Non-OC (B=0.692, p=0.127) groups.CONCLUSIONS: OC usage by elite women athletes was accompanied by lower sal-T concentrations, but the performance outputs of the OC and Non-OC groups were similar. This suggests that the T differences had no impact on match performance. On an individual (population-averaged) level, sal-T was associated with PA and NA during these matches, though the response curves predicting NA differed for OC and Non-OC athletes.

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