The effect of socks on vertical and anteroposterior ground reaction forces in walking and running

Tim Blackmore, Nick Ball, Joanna Scurr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background
Previous research suggests that socks may have the potential for injury protection through the absorption and/or redistribution of impact forces. However, there is limited research regarding the shock attenuation qualities of athletic socks in sporting populations and previously observed pressure reductions have not been quantified using a force plate.

Objective
Firstly to identify the effect of specialist athletic socks on vertical and anteroposterior ground reaction forces (GRFs) during walking and running. Secondly, to compare GRFs between specialist socks, non-specialist socks and barefoot walking and running conditions.

Methods
Following ethical approval participants (n = 5) completed five walking (1.52–1.68 m s−1) and running (3.8–4.2 m s−1) trials, unshod, over a force plate. This was completed before and after a 5000 m run (3.2 m s−1) in their own trainers in three conditions; barefoot, non-specialist socks and specialist running socks.

Results
Significant differences were identified between barefoot and specialist sock conditions for pre-intervention time to impact peak (F = 3.110(2), P = .05, r = .11) and maximum propulsive force (F = 8.126(2), P = .001, r = .25) when walking. Post hoc analysis identified an increase of .0016 s in time to impact peak when walking barefoot compared to the specialist sock condition (T = −7.402(4), P = .002, r = .71). During walking the specialist sock also demonstrated a significant decrease of .075 BWs in maximum propulsive force when compared to the barefoot condition (T = −7.624(4), P = .002, r = .79). Both significant effects diminished following the 5000 m run.

Conclusion
Findings suggest that the specialist running sock has limited effects on GRFs and therefore may be responsible for a limited degree of shock attenuation experienced during walking
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalThe Foot
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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Running
Walking
Sports
Shock
Research
Pressure
Wounds and Injuries
Population

Cite this

@article{34b7ff225d6b4bd8b2ec6c5ef6a3b358,
title = "The effect of socks on vertical and anteroposterior ground reaction forces in walking and running",
abstract = "BackgroundPrevious research suggests that socks may have the potential for injury protection through the absorption and/or redistribution of impact forces. However, there is limited research regarding the shock attenuation qualities of athletic socks in sporting populations and previously observed pressure reductions have not been quantified using a force plate.ObjectiveFirstly to identify the effect of specialist athletic socks on vertical and anteroposterior ground reaction forces (GRFs) during walking and running. Secondly, to compare GRFs between specialist socks, non-specialist socks and barefoot walking and running conditions.MethodsFollowing ethical approval participants (n = 5) completed five walking (1.52–1.68 m s−1) and running (3.8–4.2 m s−1) trials, unshod, over a force plate. This was completed before and after a 5000 m run (3.2 m s−1) in their own trainers in three conditions; barefoot, non-specialist socks and specialist running socks.ResultsSignificant differences were identified between barefoot and specialist sock conditions for pre-intervention time to impact peak (F = 3.110(2), P = .05, r = .11) and maximum propulsive force (F = 8.126(2), P = .001, r = .25) when walking. Post hoc analysis identified an increase of .0016 s in time to impact peak when walking barefoot compared to the specialist sock condition (T = −7.402(4), P = .002, r = .71). During walking the specialist sock also demonstrated a significant decrease of .075 BWs in maximum propulsive force when compared to the barefoot condition (T = −7.624(4), P = .002, r = .79). Both significant effects diminished following the 5000 m run.ConclusionFindings suggest that the specialist running sock has limited effects on GRFs and therefore may be responsible for a limited degree of shock attenuation experienced during walking",
keywords = "Athletic socks, Force plate, Force platform, Ground reaction forces, Hosiery, Impact",
author = "Tim Blackmore and Nick Ball and Joanna Scurr",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1016/J.FOOT.2010.10.002",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
pages = "1--5",
journal = "Foot",
issn = "0958-2592",
publisher = "Churchill Livingstone",
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}

The effect of socks on vertical and anteroposterior ground reaction forces in walking and running. / Blackmore, Tim; Ball, Nick; Scurr, Joanna.

In: The Foot, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2011, p. 1-5.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effect of socks on vertical and anteroposterior ground reaction forces in walking and running

AU - Blackmore, Tim

AU - Ball, Nick

AU - Scurr, Joanna

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - BackgroundPrevious research suggests that socks may have the potential for injury protection through the absorption and/or redistribution of impact forces. However, there is limited research regarding the shock attenuation qualities of athletic socks in sporting populations and previously observed pressure reductions have not been quantified using a force plate.ObjectiveFirstly to identify the effect of specialist athletic socks on vertical and anteroposterior ground reaction forces (GRFs) during walking and running. Secondly, to compare GRFs between specialist socks, non-specialist socks and barefoot walking and running conditions.MethodsFollowing ethical approval participants (n = 5) completed five walking (1.52–1.68 m s−1) and running (3.8–4.2 m s−1) trials, unshod, over a force plate. This was completed before and after a 5000 m run (3.2 m s−1) in their own trainers in three conditions; barefoot, non-specialist socks and specialist running socks.ResultsSignificant differences were identified between barefoot and specialist sock conditions for pre-intervention time to impact peak (F = 3.110(2), P = .05, r = .11) and maximum propulsive force (F = 8.126(2), P = .001, r = .25) when walking. Post hoc analysis identified an increase of .0016 s in time to impact peak when walking barefoot compared to the specialist sock condition (T = −7.402(4), P = .002, r = .71). During walking the specialist sock also demonstrated a significant decrease of .075 BWs in maximum propulsive force when compared to the barefoot condition (T = −7.624(4), P = .002, r = .79). Both significant effects diminished following the 5000 m run.ConclusionFindings suggest that the specialist running sock has limited effects on GRFs and therefore may be responsible for a limited degree of shock attenuation experienced during walking

AB - BackgroundPrevious research suggests that socks may have the potential for injury protection through the absorption and/or redistribution of impact forces. However, there is limited research regarding the shock attenuation qualities of athletic socks in sporting populations and previously observed pressure reductions have not been quantified using a force plate.ObjectiveFirstly to identify the effect of specialist athletic socks on vertical and anteroposterior ground reaction forces (GRFs) during walking and running. Secondly, to compare GRFs between specialist socks, non-specialist socks and barefoot walking and running conditions.MethodsFollowing ethical approval participants (n = 5) completed five walking (1.52–1.68 m s−1) and running (3.8–4.2 m s−1) trials, unshod, over a force plate. This was completed before and after a 5000 m run (3.2 m s−1) in their own trainers in three conditions; barefoot, non-specialist socks and specialist running socks.ResultsSignificant differences were identified between barefoot and specialist sock conditions for pre-intervention time to impact peak (F = 3.110(2), P = .05, r = .11) and maximum propulsive force (F = 8.126(2), P = .001, r = .25) when walking. Post hoc analysis identified an increase of .0016 s in time to impact peak when walking barefoot compared to the specialist sock condition (T = −7.402(4), P = .002, r = .71). During walking the specialist sock also demonstrated a significant decrease of .075 BWs in maximum propulsive force when compared to the barefoot condition (T = −7.624(4), P = .002, r = .79). Both significant effects diminished following the 5000 m run.ConclusionFindings suggest that the specialist running sock has limited effects on GRFs and therefore may be responsible for a limited degree of shock attenuation experienced during walking

KW - Athletic socks

KW - Force plate

KW - Force platform

KW - Ground reaction forces

KW - Hosiery

KW - Impact

U2 - 10.1016/J.FOOT.2010.10.002

DO - 10.1016/J.FOOT.2010.10.002

M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 1

EP - 5

JO - Foot

JF - Foot

SN - 0958-2592

IS - 1

ER -