Recent advances in mobile technologies have provided an opportunity to disseminate health information on a variety of health conditions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that text messaging helps people to lose weight, but the effectiveness of interventions varies between studies. Thus, this review aimed to (1) identify RCTs that used text messages for overweight management, (2) identify components of the interventions, and (3) test their effectiveness. PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Quality scores for selected articles were assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools for interventional studies. The effectiveness of the interventions was tested using random effect models. Twelve studies that met inclusion criteria were included in this review. Ten of the included studies reported that text message interventions had a significant effect on weight loss. The pooled mean difference in body mass index (BMI) change after the intervention was -0.43 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval, - 0.63 to - 0.23 kg/m2 ). Synthesis of the included studies provides evidence that (1) regular text messages; (2) interventions targeting weight monitoring, diet habit, and physical activity; and (3) the use of behavior change techniques led to significant weight loss.