The effects of changing pace on metabolism and stroke characteristics during high-speed breaststroke swimming

Kevin G Thompson, Donald P M MacLaren, Adrian Lees, Greg Atkinson

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    41 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Performances often vary between the heats and finals of breaststroke swimming competitions possibly because the swimmers try to conserve their energy, or for other tactical reasons. Additionally, coaches might advise either a 'positive' or 'even' pace race strategy during the final. The effect of such pacing changes on metabolism (blood lactate, heart rate, ventilation), ratings of perceived exertion, stroke kinematics and turning times have not been investigated. Nine male competitive breaststroke swimmers swam three paced (Aquapacer) 200-m trials, 48 h apart and in random order, at 98%, 100% and at an attempted 102% of their maximal 200-m time-trial speed. Responses in metabolic variables were similar between the 98% and 100% trials, but higher post-exercise blood lactate concentrations and respiratory exchange ratios were observed following the 102% trial. As the pace of trials increased, stroke rate was found to increase proportionately with stroke count. However, during the latter stages of the 100% trial, a disproportionate increase in the stroke count was observed, which led to a significant pacing error. This feature was more obvious in the 102% trial, where participants demonstrated 'positive pacing' and reported higher ratings of perceived exertion than for the 98% trial. During the early stages of the trials, turning times were initially shorter the faster the pace of the trial; however, as the trials progressed, this pattern was found to reverse. We conclude that a slight reduction in pace during near maximal breaststroke swimming altered kinematic but not post-exercise metabolic responses, while an increase in pace led to positive pacing and an increase in both kinematic responses and anaerobic metabolism.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)149-57
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
    Volume22
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2004

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    Stroke
    Biomechanical Phenomena
    Lactic Acid
    Exercise
    Anaerobiosis
    Ventilation
    Hot Temperature
    Heart Rate

    Cite this

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    title = "The effects of changing pace on metabolism and stroke characteristics during high-speed breaststroke swimming",
    abstract = "Performances often vary between the heats and finals of breaststroke swimming competitions possibly because the swimmers try to conserve their energy, or for other tactical reasons. Additionally, coaches might advise either a 'positive' or 'even' pace race strategy during the final. The effect of such pacing changes on metabolism (blood lactate, heart rate, ventilation), ratings of perceived exertion, stroke kinematics and turning times have not been investigated. Nine male competitive breaststroke swimmers swam three paced (Aquapacer) 200-m trials, 48 h apart and in random order, at 98{\%}, 100{\%} and at an attempted 102{\%} of their maximal 200-m time-trial speed. Responses in metabolic variables were similar between the 98{\%} and 100{\%} trials, but higher post-exercise blood lactate concentrations and respiratory exchange ratios were observed following the 102{\%} trial. As the pace of trials increased, stroke rate was found to increase proportionately with stroke count. However, during the latter stages of the 100{\%} trial, a disproportionate increase in the stroke count was observed, which led to a significant pacing error. This feature was more obvious in the 102{\%} trial, where participants demonstrated 'positive pacing' and reported higher ratings of perceived exertion than for the 98{\%} trial. During the early stages of the trials, turning times were initially shorter the faster the pace of the trial; however, as the trials progressed, this pattern was found to reverse. We conclude that a slight reduction in pace during near maximal breaststroke swimming altered kinematic but not post-exercise metabolic responses, while an increase in pace led to positive pacing and an increase in both kinematic responses and anaerobic metabolism.",
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    The effects of changing pace on metabolism and stroke characteristics during high-speed breaststroke swimming. / Thompson, Kevin G; MacLaren, Donald P M; Lees, Adrian; Atkinson, Greg.

    In: Journal of Sports Sciences, Vol. 22, No. 2, 02.2004, p. 149-57.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The effects of changing pace on metabolism and stroke characteristics during high-speed breaststroke swimming

    AU - Thompson, Kevin G

    AU - MacLaren, Donald P M

    AU - Lees, Adrian

    AU - Atkinson, Greg

    PY - 2004/2

    Y1 - 2004/2

    N2 - Performances often vary between the heats and finals of breaststroke swimming competitions possibly because the swimmers try to conserve their energy, or for other tactical reasons. Additionally, coaches might advise either a 'positive' or 'even' pace race strategy during the final. The effect of such pacing changes on metabolism (blood lactate, heart rate, ventilation), ratings of perceived exertion, stroke kinematics and turning times have not been investigated. Nine male competitive breaststroke swimmers swam three paced (Aquapacer) 200-m trials, 48 h apart and in random order, at 98%, 100% and at an attempted 102% of their maximal 200-m time-trial speed. Responses in metabolic variables were similar between the 98% and 100% trials, but higher post-exercise blood lactate concentrations and respiratory exchange ratios were observed following the 102% trial. As the pace of trials increased, stroke rate was found to increase proportionately with stroke count. However, during the latter stages of the 100% trial, a disproportionate increase in the stroke count was observed, which led to a significant pacing error. This feature was more obvious in the 102% trial, where participants demonstrated 'positive pacing' and reported higher ratings of perceived exertion than for the 98% trial. During the early stages of the trials, turning times were initially shorter the faster the pace of the trial; however, as the trials progressed, this pattern was found to reverse. We conclude that a slight reduction in pace during near maximal breaststroke swimming altered kinematic but not post-exercise metabolic responses, while an increase in pace led to positive pacing and an increase in both kinematic responses and anaerobic metabolism.

    AB - Performances often vary between the heats and finals of breaststroke swimming competitions possibly because the swimmers try to conserve their energy, or for other tactical reasons. Additionally, coaches might advise either a 'positive' or 'even' pace race strategy during the final. The effect of such pacing changes on metabolism (blood lactate, heart rate, ventilation), ratings of perceived exertion, stroke kinematics and turning times have not been investigated. Nine male competitive breaststroke swimmers swam three paced (Aquapacer) 200-m trials, 48 h apart and in random order, at 98%, 100% and at an attempted 102% of their maximal 200-m time-trial speed. Responses in metabolic variables were similar between the 98% and 100% trials, but higher post-exercise blood lactate concentrations and respiratory exchange ratios were observed following the 102% trial. As the pace of trials increased, stroke rate was found to increase proportionately with stroke count. However, during the latter stages of the 100% trial, a disproportionate increase in the stroke count was observed, which led to a significant pacing error. This feature was more obvious in the 102% trial, where participants demonstrated 'positive pacing' and reported higher ratings of perceived exertion than for the 98% trial. During the early stages of the trials, turning times were initially shorter the faster the pace of the trial; however, as the trials progressed, this pattern was found to reverse. We conclude that a slight reduction in pace during near maximal breaststroke swimming altered kinematic but not post-exercise metabolic responses, while an increase in pace led to positive pacing and an increase in both kinematic responses and anaerobic metabolism.

    KW - Adolescent

    KW - Adult

    KW - Biomechanical Phenomena

    KW - Exercise

    KW - Heart Rate

    KW - Humans

    KW - Lactic Acid

    KW - Male

    KW - Metabolism

    KW - Oxygen Consumption

    KW - Physical Education and Training

    KW - Swimming

    KW - Task Performance and Analysis

    KW - Clinical Trial

    KW - Journal Article

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    DO - 10.1080/02640410310001641467

    M3 - Article

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    EP - 157

    JO - Journal of Sports Science

    JF - Journal of Sports Science

    SN - 0264-0414

    IS - 2

    ER -