The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists

Amy L. Woods, Anthony J. Rice, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Alice M. Wallett, Bronwen Lundy, Margot A. Rogers, Marijke Welvaert, Shona Halson, Andrew McKune, Kevin G. Thompson

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Abstract

Background - Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Method - Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a Baseline week (100% of regular training load), a Build week (∼120% of Baseline load), two Loading weeks (∼140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively) and two Recovery weeks (∼80% of Baseline load). Training comprised of a combination of laboratory based interval sessions and on-road cycling. RMR, body composition, energy intake, appetite, heart rate variability (HRV), cycling performance, biochemical markers and mood responses were assessed at multiple time points throughout the six-week period. Data were analysed using a linear mixed modeling approach. Results - The intensified training period elicited significant decreases in RMR (F(5,123.36) = 12.0947, p = <0.001), body mass (F(2,19.242) = 4.3362, p = 0.03), fat mass (F(2,20.35) = 56.2494, p = <0.001) and HRV (F(2,22.608) = 6.5212, p = 0.005); all of which improved following a period of recovery. A state of overreaching was induced, as identified by a reduction in anaerobic performance (F(5,121.87) = 8.2622, p = <0.001), aerobic performance (F(5,118.26) = 2.766, p = 0.02) and increase in total mood disturbance (F(5, 110.61) = 8.1159, p = <0.001). Conclusion - Intensified training periods elicit greater energy demands in trained cyclists, which, if not sufficiently compensated with increased dietary intake, appears to provoke a cascade of metabolic, hormonal and neural responses in an attempt to restore homeostasis and conserve energy. The proactive monitoring of energy intake, power output, mood state, body mass and HRV during intensified training periods may alleviate fatigue and attenuate the observed decrease in RMR, providing more optimal conditions for a positive training adaptation.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0191644
Pages (from-to)1-24
Number of pages24
JournalPLoS One
Volume13
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Feb 2018

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Basal Metabolism
resting metabolic rate
Body Composition
body composition
emotions
heart rate
Chemical analysis
Heart Rate
athletes
Recovery
Energy Intake
Athletes
energy intake
Durability
Fats
Fatigue of materials
energy
Appetite
appetite
education programs

Cite this

Woods, Amy L. ; Rice, Anthony J. ; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A. ; Wallett, Alice M. ; Lundy, Bronwen ; Rogers, Margot A. ; Welvaert, Marijke ; Halson, Shona ; McKune, Andrew ; Thompson, Kevin G. / The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists. In: PLoS One. 2018 ; Vol. 13, No. 2. pp. 1-24.
@article{b09b28fe03a04e19bc7df6efecdafd61,
title = "The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists",
abstract = "Background - Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Method - Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a Baseline week (100{\%} of regular training load), a Build week (∼120{\%} of Baseline load), two Loading weeks (∼140, 150{\%} of Baseline load, respectively) and two Recovery weeks (∼80{\%} of Baseline load). Training comprised of a combination of laboratory based interval sessions and on-road cycling. RMR, body composition, energy intake, appetite, heart rate variability (HRV), cycling performance, biochemical markers and mood responses were assessed at multiple time points throughout the six-week period. Data were analysed using a linear mixed modeling approach. Results - The intensified training period elicited significant decreases in RMR (F(5,123.36) = 12.0947, p = <0.001), body mass (F(2,19.242) = 4.3362, p = 0.03), fat mass (F(2,20.35) = 56.2494, p = <0.001) and HRV (F(2,22.608) = 6.5212, p = 0.005); all of which improved following a period of recovery. A state of overreaching was induced, as identified by a reduction in anaerobic performance (F(5,121.87) = 8.2622, p = <0.001), aerobic performance (F(5,118.26) = 2.766, p = 0.02) and increase in total mood disturbance (F(5, 110.61) = 8.1159, p = <0.001). Conclusion - Intensified training periods elicit greater energy demands in trained cyclists, which, if not sufficiently compensated with increased dietary intake, appears to provoke a cascade of metabolic, hormonal and neural responses in an attempt to restore homeostasis and conserve energy. The proactive monitoring of energy intake, power output, mood state, body mass and HRV during intensified training periods may alleviate fatigue and attenuate the observed decrease in RMR, providing more optimal conditions for a positive training adaptation.",
keywords = "Material fatigue, Bioenergetics, Human performance, Leptin, heart rate, Sport, Fats, Psychometrics",
author = "Woods, {Amy L.} and Rice, {Anthony J.} and Garvican-Lewis, {Laura A.} and Wallett, {Alice M.} and Bronwen Lundy and Rogers, {Margot A.} and Marijke Welvaert and Shona Halson and Andrew McKune and Thompson, {Kevin G.}",
year = "2018",
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doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0191644",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
pages = "1--24",
journal = "PLoS One",
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}

Woods, AL, Rice, AJ, Garvican-Lewis, LA, Wallett, AM, Lundy, B, Rogers, MA, Welvaert, M, Halson, S, McKune, A & Thompson, KG 2018, 'The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists', PLoS One, vol. 13, no. 2, e0191644, pp. 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191644

The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists. / Woods, Amy L.; Rice, Anthony J.; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.; Wallett, Alice M.; Lundy, Bronwen; Rogers, Margot A.; Welvaert, Marijke; Halson, Shona; McKune, Andrew; Thompson, Kevin G.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 13, No. 2, e0191644, 14.02.2018, p. 1-24.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists

AU - Woods, Amy L.

AU - Rice, Anthony J.

AU - Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.

AU - Wallett, Alice M.

AU - Lundy, Bronwen

AU - Rogers, Margot A.

AU - Welvaert, Marijke

AU - Halson, Shona

AU - McKune, Andrew

AU - Thompson, Kevin G.

PY - 2018/2/14

Y1 - 2018/2/14

N2 - Background - Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Method - Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a Baseline week (100% of regular training load), a Build week (∼120% of Baseline load), two Loading weeks (∼140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively) and two Recovery weeks (∼80% of Baseline load). Training comprised of a combination of laboratory based interval sessions and on-road cycling. RMR, body composition, energy intake, appetite, heart rate variability (HRV), cycling performance, biochemical markers and mood responses were assessed at multiple time points throughout the six-week period. Data were analysed using a linear mixed modeling approach. Results - The intensified training period elicited significant decreases in RMR (F(5,123.36) = 12.0947, p = <0.001), body mass (F(2,19.242) = 4.3362, p = 0.03), fat mass (F(2,20.35) = 56.2494, p = <0.001) and HRV (F(2,22.608) = 6.5212, p = 0.005); all of which improved following a period of recovery. A state of overreaching was induced, as identified by a reduction in anaerobic performance (F(5,121.87) = 8.2622, p = <0.001), aerobic performance (F(5,118.26) = 2.766, p = 0.02) and increase in total mood disturbance (F(5, 110.61) = 8.1159, p = <0.001). Conclusion - Intensified training periods elicit greater energy demands in trained cyclists, which, if not sufficiently compensated with increased dietary intake, appears to provoke a cascade of metabolic, hormonal and neural responses in an attempt to restore homeostasis and conserve energy. The proactive monitoring of energy intake, power output, mood state, body mass and HRV during intensified training periods may alleviate fatigue and attenuate the observed decrease in RMR, providing more optimal conditions for a positive training adaptation.

AB - Background - Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Method - Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a Baseline week (100% of regular training load), a Build week (∼120% of Baseline load), two Loading weeks (∼140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively) and two Recovery weeks (∼80% of Baseline load). Training comprised of a combination of laboratory based interval sessions and on-road cycling. RMR, body composition, energy intake, appetite, heart rate variability (HRV), cycling performance, biochemical markers and mood responses were assessed at multiple time points throughout the six-week period. Data were analysed using a linear mixed modeling approach. Results - The intensified training period elicited significant decreases in RMR (F(5,123.36) = 12.0947, p = <0.001), body mass (F(2,19.242) = 4.3362, p = 0.03), fat mass (F(2,20.35) = 56.2494, p = <0.001) and HRV (F(2,22.608) = 6.5212, p = 0.005); all of which improved following a period of recovery. A state of overreaching was induced, as identified by a reduction in anaerobic performance (F(5,121.87) = 8.2622, p = <0.001), aerobic performance (F(5,118.26) = 2.766, p = 0.02) and increase in total mood disturbance (F(5, 110.61) = 8.1159, p = <0.001). Conclusion - Intensified training periods elicit greater energy demands in trained cyclists, which, if not sufficiently compensated with increased dietary intake, appears to provoke a cascade of metabolic, hormonal and neural responses in an attempt to restore homeostasis and conserve energy. The proactive monitoring of energy intake, power output, mood state, body mass and HRV during intensified training periods may alleviate fatigue and attenuate the observed decrease in RMR, providing more optimal conditions for a positive training adaptation.

KW - Material fatigue

KW - Bioenergetics

KW - Human performance

KW - Leptin

KW - heart rate

KW - Sport

KW - Fats

KW - Psychometrics

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U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0191644

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0191644

M3 - Article

VL - 13

SP - 1

EP - 24

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

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M1 - e0191644

ER -