We studied the kinetics of localisation of matrix (M) protein of Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infected cells. M protein was detected in the nucleus early in infection, by confocal microscopy and by immunoblotting of nuclear fractions. We next tested the possibility that M protein may be involved in inhibition of host cell transcription. Nuclear extracts from RSV infected cells had less transcriptional activity in vitro when compared to nuclear extracts from mock infected cells. In addition, nuclear extracts from RSV infected cells inhibited the transcriptional activity of nuclear extracts from mock infected cells, suggesting that an inhibitory activity was transferred with nuclear extracts from RSV infected cells. Our data suggest that M protein may play a role early in the infection by inhibiting host cell transcription.