In order to maintain their unlimited capacity to divide, stem cells require controlled temporal and spatial protein expression. The Musashi family of RNA-binding proteins have been shown to exhibit this necessary translational control through both repression and activation in order to regulate multiple stem cell populations. This chapter looks in depth at the initial discovery and characterisation of Musashi in the model organism Drosophila, and its subsequent emergence as a master regulator in a number of stem cell populations. Furthermore the unique roles for mammalian Musashi-1 and Musashi-2 in different stem cell types are correlated with the perceived diagnostic power of Musashi expression in specific stem cell derived oncologies. In particular the potential role for Musashi in the identification and treatment of human cancer is considered, with a focus on the role of Musashi-2 in leukaemia. Finally, the manipulation of Musashi expression is proposed as a potential avenue towards the targeted treatment of specific aggressive stem cell cancers.