The Potential to Change Pacing and Performance During 4000-m Cycling Time Trials Using Hyperoxia and Inspired Gas-Content Deception

Michael J Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J Gore, Kevin G Thompson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: Determine if a series of trials with fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) content deception could improve 4000-m cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Methods: Fifteen trained male cyclists (mean ± SD: body mass 74.2 ± 8.0 kg; peak oxygen uptake 62 ± 6 mL.kg-1.min-1) completed six, 4000-m cycling TTs in a semi-randomised order. After a familiarisation TT, cyclists were informed in two initial trials they were inspiring normoxic air (NORM, FiO2: 0.21), however in one trial (deception condition) they inspired hyperoxic air (NORM-DEC, FiO2: 0.36). During two subsequent TTs, cyclists were informed they were inspiring hyperoxic air (HYPER, FiO2: 0.36), but in one trial normoxic air was inspired (HYPER-DEC). In the final TT (NORM-INFORM) the deception was revealed, and cyclists were asked to reproduce their best TT performance while inspiring normoxic air. Results: Greater power output and faster performances occurred when cyclists inspired hyperoxic air in both truthful (HYPER) and deceptive (NORM-DEC) trials compared to NORM (P < 0.001). However, performance only improved in NORM-INFORM (377 W [95% CI 325, 429]) vs NORM (352 W [299, 404]), P < 0.001) when participants (n = 4) completed the trials in the following order: NORM-DEC, NORM, HYPER-DEC, HYPER. Conclusions: Cycling performance improved with acute exposure to hyperoxia. Mechanisms for the improvement were likely physiological, however improvement in a deception trial suggests an additional placebo effect may be present. Finally, a particular sequence of oxygen deception trials may have built psycho-physiological belief in cyclists such that performance improved in a subsequent normoxic trial.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)949–957
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Volume14
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019

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Hyperoxia
Deception
Gases
Air
Oxygen
Placebo Effect

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title = "The Potential to Change Pacing and Performance During 4000-m Cycling Time Trials Using Hyperoxia and Inspired Gas-Content Deception",
abstract = "Purpose: Determine if a series of trials with fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) content deception could improve 4000-m cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Methods: Fifteen trained male cyclists (mean ± SD: body mass 74.2 ± 8.0 kg; peak oxygen uptake 62 ± 6 mL.kg-1.min-1) completed six, 4000-m cycling TTs in a semi-randomised order. After a familiarisation TT, cyclists were informed in two initial trials they were inspiring normoxic air (NORM, FiO2: 0.21), however in one trial (deception condition) they inspired hyperoxic air (NORM-DEC, FiO2: 0.36). During two subsequent TTs, cyclists were informed they were inspiring hyperoxic air (HYPER, FiO2: 0.36), but in one trial normoxic air was inspired (HYPER-DEC). In the final TT (NORM-INFORM) the deception was revealed, and cyclists were asked to reproduce their best TT performance while inspiring normoxic air. Results: Greater power output and faster performances occurred when cyclists inspired hyperoxic air in both truthful (HYPER) and deceptive (NORM-DEC) trials compared to NORM (P < 0.001). However, performance only improved in NORM-INFORM (377 W [95{\%} CI 325, 429]) vs NORM (352 W [299, 404]), P < 0.001) when participants (n = 4) completed the trials in the following order: NORM-DEC, NORM, HYPER-DEC, HYPER. Conclusions: Cycling performance improved with acute exposure to hyperoxia. Mechanisms for the improvement were likely physiological, however improvement in a deception trial suggests an additional placebo effect may be present. Finally, a particular sequence of oxygen deception trials may have built psycho-physiological belief in cyclists such that performance improved in a subsequent normoxic trial.",
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The Potential to Change Pacing and Performance During 4000-m Cycling Time Trials Using Hyperoxia and Inspired Gas-Content Deception. / Davies, Michael J; Clark, Bradley; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Welvaert, Marijke; Gore, Christopher J; Thompson, Kevin G.

In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Vol. 14, No. 7, 08.2019, p. 949–957.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Potential to Change Pacing and Performance During 4000-m Cycling Time Trials Using Hyperoxia and Inspired Gas-Content Deception

AU - Davies, Michael J

AU - Clark, Bradley

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AU - Gore, Christopher J

AU - Thompson, Kevin G

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N2 - Purpose: Determine if a series of trials with fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) content deception could improve 4000-m cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Methods: Fifteen trained male cyclists (mean ± SD: body mass 74.2 ± 8.0 kg; peak oxygen uptake 62 ± 6 mL.kg-1.min-1) completed six, 4000-m cycling TTs in a semi-randomised order. After a familiarisation TT, cyclists were informed in two initial trials they were inspiring normoxic air (NORM, FiO2: 0.21), however in one trial (deception condition) they inspired hyperoxic air (NORM-DEC, FiO2: 0.36). During two subsequent TTs, cyclists were informed they were inspiring hyperoxic air (HYPER, FiO2: 0.36), but in one trial normoxic air was inspired (HYPER-DEC). In the final TT (NORM-INFORM) the deception was revealed, and cyclists were asked to reproduce their best TT performance while inspiring normoxic air. Results: Greater power output and faster performances occurred when cyclists inspired hyperoxic air in both truthful (HYPER) and deceptive (NORM-DEC) trials compared to NORM (P < 0.001). However, performance only improved in NORM-INFORM (377 W [95% CI 325, 429]) vs NORM (352 W [299, 404]), P < 0.001) when participants (n = 4) completed the trials in the following order: NORM-DEC, NORM, HYPER-DEC, HYPER. Conclusions: Cycling performance improved with acute exposure to hyperoxia. Mechanisms for the improvement were likely physiological, however improvement in a deception trial suggests an additional placebo effect may be present. Finally, a particular sequence of oxygen deception trials may have built psycho-physiological belief in cyclists such that performance improved in a subsequent normoxic trial.

AB - Purpose: Determine if a series of trials with fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) content deception could improve 4000-m cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Methods: Fifteen trained male cyclists (mean ± SD: body mass 74.2 ± 8.0 kg; peak oxygen uptake 62 ± 6 mL.kg-1.min-1) completed six, 4000-m cycling TTs in a semi-randomised order. After a familiarisation TT, cyclists were informed in two initial trials they were inspiring normoxic air (NORM, FiO2: 0.21), however in one trial (deception condition) they inspired hyperoxic air (NORM-DEC, FiO2: 0.36). During two subsequent TTs, cyclists were informed they were inspiring hyperoxic air (HYPER, FiO2: 0.36), but in one trial normoxic air was inspired (HYPER-DEC). In the final TT (NORM-INFORM) the deception was revealed, and cyclists were asked to reproduce their best TT performance while inspiring normoxic air. Results: Greater power output and faster performances occurred when cyclists inspired hyperoxic air in both truthful (HYPER) and deceptive (NORM-DEC) trials compared to NORM (P < 0.001). However, performance only improved in NORM-INFORM (377 W [95% CI 325, 429]) vs NORM (352 W [299, 404]), P < 0.001) when participants (n = 4) completed the trials in the following order: NORM-DEC, NORM, HYPER-DEC, HYPER. Conclusions: Cycling performance improved with acute exposure to hyperoxia. Mechanisms for the improvement were likely physiological, however improvement in a deception trial suggests an additional placebo effect may be present. Finally, a particular sequence of oxygen deception trials may have built psycho-physiological belief in cyclists such that performance improved in a subsequent normoxic trial.

KW - exercise reserve

KW - feedback

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KW - pacing strategy

KW - oxygen content

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DO - 10.1123/ijspp.2018-0335

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JO - International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

JF - International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

SN - 1555-0265

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