The “PRE” scale: The assessment of the elementary passively received experiences of schizophrenia

Massimo Moscarelli, Jung Yun Min, Alex Kopelowicz, Oscar Chavez, Lizzette Gómez-de-Regil, Luis Salvador-Carulla, María Montes Gamez, Regina Vila-Badía, Cristina Romero-Lopez-Alberca, Anthony O. Ahmed

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Measures currently used to assess the symptoms of schizophrenia
typically do not define patient reported outcomes (PRO) key disease-
related symptoms, and do not assess specifically their presence, persis-
tence, and immediate personal disturbance. A PRO is defined as a
“report that comes directly from the patient, about the status of a pa-
tient's health condition, without amendment or interpretation of the
patient's response by a clinician or anyone else” (USDHHS-FDA, 2009).
PRO key disease-related symptoms in medical diseases are “meaningful
to patients, linked to the underlying disease, have the potential to be
responsive to effective therapies...PRO disease symptom scores have
been used successfully in oncology, and efforts have been undertaken to
identify and measure key symptoms in several malignant diseases and
measurement tools based on unique characteristics of each disease
continue to be developed and refined.” (Kluetz et al., 2016).
A new approach (Descriptive Micropsychopathology) and a new
concept (Passively Received Experiences) (Moscarelli, 2009 and Sup-
plementary Material) define with inclusion and exclusion criteria a
specific class of elementary experiences of the illness in schizophrenia,
meaningful to patients, and with the potential to be responsive to
effective therapies. The concept of the "Passively Received Experiences"
is consistent with the Jaspers' and Schneider's construct of “psycholog-
ically primary and irreducible” experiences and symptoms (Moscarelli,
2020) and with the construct of "PRO key disease-related symptoms" in
medical diseases (Kluetz et al., 2016).
A new self-report PRO measure, the Scale for Assessment of Passively
Received Experiences (PRE,©) assesses presence, persistence, and
disturbance of the “passively received experiences” (Supplementary
We examined the psychometric properties of the PRE-121 including
internal consistency reliability, one-week test-retest reliability, conver-
gence validity with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS),
and correlations with suicidality and functional disability
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)218-220
Number of pages3
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


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