The process of sulfide oxidation in some acid sulfate soil materials

N. J. Ward, L. A. Sullivan, D. M. Fyfe, R. T. Bush, A. J.P. Ferguson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The process of sulfide oxidation in acid sulfate soils (ASS) is complex, involving the formation of numerous oxidation products. In this study the sulfide oxidation process was examined in 2 ASS materials over a period of 36 days using laboratory incubation experiments. Both ASS materials experienced substantial sulfide oxidation and acidification during incubation. The oxidation of pyrite was the primary cause of acidification in these ASS materials. Although a decrease in magnetic susceptibility (χ) over the initial 4 days of incubation suggested the rapid oxidation of ferromagnetic iron monosulfide greigite (Fe3S4), the total acid volatile sulfur (S AV) fraction increased in concentration by an order of magnitude over the initial 8 days of incubation. Oxygen (O2) concentration profiles indicated the presence of anoxic conditions in the centre of the incubating materials even after 16 days of exposure to the atmosphere enabling S AV formation to occur. The oxidation of the SAV fraction did not result in substantial acidification. A large proportion of the water-soluble iron released by sulfide oxidation was precipitated as iron oxides and hydroxides. Sulfate (SO42-) was the dominant sulfur species produced from sulfide oxidation in both ASS materials, although water-soluble SO42- was a poor indicator of the extent of sulfide oxidation. The sulfoxyanion intermediates, thiosulfate (S 2O32-) and tetrathionate (S4O 62-), were detected only in the early stages of incubation, with minimal amounts being detected after the initial 4 days. The relative abundance of these 2 intermediate sulfur species appeared to be dependent on the soil pH, with S4O62- dominating S2O32- in the more acidic ASS material (i.e. pH <6) as has been observed in previous studies. The diminishing presence of sulfoxyanion intermediates as oxidation progressed was indicative that ferric ion (Fe3+) and bacterial catalysis were driving the oxidation processes. While these sulfoxyanion intermediates only constituted a small percentage of the reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) fraction, they accounted for up to 9.3% of the total soluble sulfur fraction. Elemental sulfur (S0) was not an important sulfide oxidation product in the ASS materials examined in this study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)449-458
Number of pages10
JournalAustralian Journal of Soil Research
Volume42
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

acid sulfate soils
acid sulfate soil
Sulfides
sulfides
Sulfates
sulfide
oxidation
Soils
Oxidation
Acids
Sulfur
sulfur
incubation
Acidification
acidification
material
Iron
Hydroxides
iron hydroxides
iron

Cite this

Ward, N. J. ; Sullivan, L. A. ; Fyfe, D. M. ; Bush, R. T. ; Ferguson, A. J.P. / The process of sulfide oxidation in some acid sulfate soil materials. In: Australian Journal of Soil Research. 2004 ; Vol. 42, No. 4. pp. 449-458.
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abstract = "The process of sulfide oxidation in acid sulfate soils (ASS) is complex, involving the formation of numerous oxidation products. In this study the sulfide oxidation process was examined in 2 ASS materials over a period of 36 days using laboratory incubation experiments. Both ASS materials experienced substantial sulfide oxidation and acidification during incubation. The oxidation of pyrite was the primary cause of acidification in these ASS materials. Although a decrease in magnetic susceptibility (χ) over the initial 4 days of incubation suggested the rapid oxidation of ferromagnetic iron monosulfide greigite (Fe3S4), the total acid volatile sulfur (S AV) fraction increased in concentration by an order of magnitude over the initial 8 days of incubation. Oxygen (O2) concentration profiles indicated the presence of anoxic conditions in the centre of the incubating materials even after 16 days of exposure to the atmosphere enabling S AV formation to occur. The oxidation of the SAV fraction did not result in substantial acidification. A large proportion of the water-soluble iron released by sulfide oxidation was precipitated as iron oxides and hydroxides. Sulfate (SO42-) was the dominant sulfur species produced from sulfide oxidation in both ASS materials, although water-soluble SO42- was a poor indicator of the extent of sulfide oxidation. The sulfoxyanion intermediates, thiosulfate (S 2O32-) and tetrathionate (S4O 62-), were detected only in the early stages of incubation, with minimal amounts being detected after the initial 4 days. The relative abundance of these 2 intermediate sulfur species appeared to be dependent on the soil pH, with S4O62- dominating S2O32- in the more acidic ASS material (i.e. pH <6) as has been observed in previous studies. The diminishing presence of sulfoxyanion intermediates as oxidation progressed was indicative that ferric ion (Fe3+) and bacterial catalysis were driving the oxidation processes. While these sulfoxyanion intermediates only constituted a small percentage of the reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) fraction, they accounted for up to 9.3{\%} of the total soluble sulfur fraction. Elemental sulfur (S0) was not an important sulfide oxidation product in the ASS materials examined in this study.",
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The process of sulfide oxidation in some acid sulfate soil materials. / Ward, N. J.; Sullivan, L. A.; Fyfe, D. M.; Bush, R. T.; Ferguson, A. J.P.

In: Australian Journal of Soil Research, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2004, p. 449-458.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The process of sulfide oxidation in some acid sulfate soil materials

AU - Ward, N. J.

AU - Sullivan, L. A.

AU - Fyfe, D. M.

AU - Bush, R. T.

AU - Ferguson, A. J.P.

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N2 - The process of sulfide oxidation in acid sulfate soils (ASS) is complex, involving the formation of numerous oxidation products. In this study the sulfide oxidation process was examined in 2 ASS materials over a period of 36 days using laboratory incubation experiments. Both ASS materials experienced substantial sulfide oxidation and acidification during incubation. The oxidation of pyrite was the primary cause of acidification in these ASS materials. Although a decrease in magnetic susceptibility (χ) over the initial 4 days of incubation suggested the rapid oxidation of ferromagnetic iron monosulfide greigite (Fe3S4), the total acid volatile sulfur (S AV) fraction increased in concentration by an order of magnitude over the initial 8 days of incubation. Oxygen (O2) concentration profiles indicated the presence of anoxic conditions in the centre of the incubating materials even after 16 days of exposure to the atmosphere enabling S AV formation to occur. The oxidation of the SAV fraction did not result in substantial acidification. A large proportion of the water-soluble iron released by sulfide oxidation was precipitated as iron oxides and hydroxides. Sulfate (SO42-) was the dominant sulfur species produced from sulfide oxidation in both ASS materials, although water-soluble SO42- was a poor indicator of the extent of sulfide oxidation. The sulfoxyanion intermediates, thiosulfate (S 2O32-) and tetrathionate (S4O 62-), were detected only in the early stages of incubation, with minimal amounts being detected after the initial 4 days. The relative abundance of these 2 intermediate sulfur species appeared to be dependent on the soil pH, with S4O62- dominating S2O32- in the more acidic ASS material (i.e. pH <6) as has been observed in previous studies. The diminishing presence of sulfoxyanion intermediates as oxidation progressed was indicative that ferric ion (Fe3+) and bacterial catalysis were driving the oxidation processes. While these sulfoxyanion intermediates only constituted a small percentage of the reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) fraction, they accounted for up to 9.3% of the total soluble sulfur fraction. Elemental sulfur (S0) was not an important sulfide oxidation product in the ASS materials examined in this study.

AB - The process of sulfide oxidation in acid sulfate soils (ASS) is complex, involving the formation of numerous oxidation products. In this study the sulfide oxidation process was examined in 2 ASS materials over a period of 36 days using laboratory incubation experiments. Both ASS materials experienced substantial sulfide oxidation and acidification during incubation. The oxidation of pyrite was the primary cause of acidification in these ASS materials. Although a decrease in magnetic susceptibility (χ) over the initial 4 days of incubation suggested the rapid oxidation of ferromagnetic iron monosulfide greigite (Fe3S4), the total acid volatile sulfur (S AV) fraction increased in concentration by an order of magnitude over the initial 8 days of incubation. Oxygen (O2) concentration profiles indicated the presence of anoxic conditions in the centre of the incubating materials even after 16 days of exposure to the atmosphere enabling S AV formation to occur. The oxidation of the SAV fraction did not result in substantial acidification. A large proportion of the water-soluble iron released by sulfide oxidation was precipitated as iron oxides and hydroxides. Sulfate (SO42-) was the dominant sulfur species produced from sulfide oxidation in both ASS materials, although water-soluble SO42- was a poor indicator of the extent of sulfide oxidation. The sulfoxyanion intermediates, thiosulfate (S 2O32-) and tetrathionate (S4O 62-), were detected only in the early stages of incubation, with minimal amounts being detected after the initial 4 days. The relative abundance of these 2 intermediate sulfur species appeared to be dependent on the soil pH, with S4O62- dominating S2O32- in the more acidic ASS material (i.e. pH <6) as has been observed in previous studies. The diminishing presence of sulfoxyanion intermediates as oxidation progressed was indicative that ferric ion (Fe3+) and bacterial catalysis were driving the oxidation processes. While these sulfoxyanion intermediates only constituted a small percentage of the reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) fraction, they accounted for up to 9.3% of the total soluble sulfur fraction. Elemental sulfur (S0) was not an important sulfide oxidation product in the ASS materials examined in this study.

KW - Acid volatile sulfur

KW - Acidification

KW - Chromium reducible sulfur

KW - Pyrite oxidation

KW - Soil incubation

KW - Tetrathionate

KW - Thiosulfate

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