The role of NGOs in monitoring compliance under the world heritage convention: Options for an improved tripartite regime

Research output: A Conference proceeding or a Chapter in BookChapterpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This chapter explores the role of non-State actors under the 1972 World Heritage Convention (WHC). Non-State actors, such as non-government organisations (NGOs), can play a powerful role in monitoring the activities of States under international environmental law. A treaty such as the WHC, with few non-compliance procedures, is strengthened by the presence of NGOs, though their legitimacy to regulate is debatable. The author gives an overview of the world heritage system, focusing on non-compliance mechanisms. The chapter gives examples of NGOs using petitioning as a tool to monitor State behaviour and bringing it before the World Heritage Committee. Under international law petitioning is legally questionable, but it appears that NGOs have resorted to it to raise the profile of potential risks to world heritage sites. Their actions seem to be born out of not choice but frustration, and so an argument is developed for more formalised lines of involvement for NGOs under the WHC. The chapter is relevant for those interested in the protection of world heritage and how softer forms of non-State regulation can promote compliance with international environmental law.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Judicial Practice on the Environment
Subtitle of host publicationQuestions of Legitimacy
EditorsChristina Voigt
PublisherCambridge University Press
Chapter16
Pages417-442
Number of pages26
ISBN (Electronic)9781108684385
ISBN (Print)9781108497176
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes

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