Translation, cultural adaption, and test–retest reliability of Chinese versions of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory and Waterloo Footedness Questionnaire

Nan Yang, Gordon Waddington, Roger Adams, Jia Han

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)


Quantitative assessments of handedness and footedness are often required in studies of human cognition and behaviour, yet no reliable Chinese versions of commonly used handedness and footedness questionnaires are available. Accordingly, the objective of the present study was to translate the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI) and the Waterloo Footedness Questionnaire-Revised (WFQ-R) into Mandarin Chinese and to evaluate the reliability and validity of these translated versions in healthy Chinese people. In the first stage of the study, Chinese versions of the EHI and WFQ-R were produced from a process of translation, back translation and examination, with necessary cultural adaptations. The second stage involved determining the reliability and validity of the translated EHI and WFQ-R for the Chinese population. One hundred and ten Chinese participants were tested online, and the results showed that the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of internal consistency was 0.877 for the translated EHI and 0.855 for the translated WFQ-R. Another 170 Chinese participants were tested and re-tested after a 30-day interval. The intra-class correlation coefficients showed high reliability, 0.898 for the translated EHI and 0.869 for the translated WFQ-R. This preliminary validation study found the translated versions to be reliable and valid tools for assessing handedness and footedness in this population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-273
Number of pages19
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 4 May 2018


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