Trophic Interactions among native and introduced animal species

Wendy RUSCOE, Grant Norbury, D. Choquenot

    Research output: A Conference proceeding or a Chapter in BookChapter

    Abstract

    In the absence of exotic mammals, the beech forest system is strongly driven bottom-up. The sporadic heavy seeding of beech trees results in a cascade of population increases in the native fauna, without any known reciprocal effects. In dryland ecosystems, the nutrient pulses occur annually during spring flushes of herbaceous plants. In both the little modified beech forest and the highly human-impacted dryland ecosystems, mammalian introductions have been made at both the herbivore and predator trophic levels. These exotic additions have created strong top-down effects on indigenous fauna because predator abundance (stoat, ferret, and cat) is driven mainly by exotic prey species (mice and rabbits). Predator numbers can reach levels not normally possible without the introduced prey, and this can potentially lead to extinction of the native fauna. The worst scenario for native prey occurs when mice and rabbit numbers fluctuate widely. This leads to acute bouts of predation caused by the increases in predator numbers (in the case of stoats), or as ferrets and cats switch to native species following sudden declines in rabbit abundance. We now know enough about some processes in beech forest and dryland ecosystems to build prototype models that will help to predict the wider effects of controlling introduced species, identify critical knowledge gaps, and ultimately guide management decisions to achieve desired biodiversity outcomes.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationBiological Invasions in New Zealand
    Place of PublicationHeidelberg
    PublisherSpringer Verlag
    Chapter16
    Pages247-263
    Number of pages17
    Volume186
    Publication statusPublished - 2005

    Fingerprint

    trophic interaction
    predator
    fauna
    ecosystem
    seeding
    introduced species
    native species
    trophic level
    herb
    herbivore
    mammal
    predation
    extinction
    biodiversity
    animal species
    nutrient
    effect

    Cite this

    RUSCOE, W., Norbury, G., & Choquenot, D. (2005). Trophic Interactions among native and introduced animal species. In Biological Invasions in New Zealand (Vol. 186, pp. 247-263). Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.
    RUSCOE, Wendy ; Norbury, Grant ; Choquenot, D. / Trophic Interactions among native and introduced animal species. Biological Invasions in New Zealand. Vol. 186 Heidelberg : Springer Verlag, 2005. pp. 247-263
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    RUSCOE, W, Norbury, G & Choquenot, D 2005, Trophic Interactions among native and introduced animal species. in Biological Invasions in New Zealand. vol. 186, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 247-263.

    Trophic Interactions among native and introduced animal species. / RUSCOE, Wendy; Norbury, Grant; Choquenot, D.

    Biological Invasions in New Zealand. Vol. 186 Heidelberg : Springer Verlag, 2005. p. 247-263.

    Research output: A Conference proceeding or a Chapter in BookChapter

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    AB - In the absence of exotic mammals, the beech forest system is strongly driven bottom-up. The sporadic heavy seeding of beech trees results in a cascade of population increases in the native fauna, without any known reciprocal effects. In dryland ecosystems, the nutrient pulses occur annually during spring flushes of herbaceous plants. In both the little modified beech forest and the highly human-impacted dryland ecosystems, mammalian introductions have been made at both the herbivore and predator trophic levels. These exotic additions have created strong top-down effects on indigenous fauna because predator abundance (stoat, ferret, and cat) is driven mainly by exotic prey species (mice and rabbits). Predator numbers can reach levels not normally possible without the introduced prey, and this can potentially lead to extinction of the native fauna. The worst scenario for native prey occurs when mice and rabbit numbers fluctuate widely. This leads to acute bouts of predation caused by the increases in predator numbers (in the case of stoats), or as ferrets and cats switch to native species following sudden declines in rabbit abundance. We now know enough about some processes in beech forest and dryland ecosystems to build prototype models that will help to predict the wider effects of controlling introduced species, identify critical knowledge gaps, and ultimately guide management decisions to achieve desired biodiversity outcomes.

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    RUSCOE W, Norbury G, Choquenot D. Trophic Interactions among native and introduced animal species. In Biological Invasions in New Zealand. Vol. 186. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag. 2005. p. 247-263