Understanding How Phosphorylation and Redox Modifications Regulate Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor Type 2 Activity to Produce an Arrhythmogenic Phenotype in Advanced Heart Failure

Alexander Dashwood, Elizabeth Cheesman, Nicole Beard, Haris Haqqani, Yee Weng Wong, Peter Molenaar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Heart failure (HF) is a global pandemic with significant mortality and morbidity. Despite current medications, 50% of individuals die within 5 years of diagnosis. Of these deaths, 30-50% will be a result of sudden cardiac death from ventricular arrhythmias. This review discusses two stress-induced mechanisms, phosphorylation from chronic β-Adrenoceptor (β-AR) stimulation and thiol modifications from oxidative stress, and how they modulate the cardiac ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and foster an arrhythmogenic phenotype. Calcium (Ca2+) is the ubiquitous secondary messenger of excitation-contraction coupling and provides a common pathway for contractile dysfunction and arrhythmia genesis. In a healthy heart, Ca2+ is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by RyR2. The open probability of RyR2 is under the dynamic influence of co-proteins, ions, and kinases that are in strict balance to ensure normal physiological functioning. In HF, chronic β-AR activity and production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species provide two stress-induced mechanisms uncoupling RyR2 control, resulting in pathological diastolic SR Ca2+ leak. This increased cytosolic [Ca2+] promotes Ca2+ extrusion via the local Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, resulting in net sarcolemmal depolarization, delayed after depolarization and ventricular arrhythmia. Experimental models researching oxidative stress and phosphorylation have aimed to identify how post-Translational modifications to the RyR2 macromolecular complex, and the associated Na+/Ca2+ cycling proteins, result in pathological Ca2+ handling and diastolic leak. However, the causative molecular changes remain controversial and undefined. Through understanding the molecular mechanisms that produce an arrhythmic phenotype, novel therapeutic targets to treat HF and prevent its malignant course can be identified.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)563-582
Number of pages20
JournalACS Pharmacology and Translational Science
Volume3
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Aug 2020

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