This paper contributes to the academic literature on policy-making at the global level by empirically showing the nature and institutional challenges of higher education reforms under NPM principles. The authors explain the key strategies adopted by Indonesia’s government and the problems it faced in reforming its higher education system. The overall result was negative. The Indonesian reforms will not bring about meaningful outcomes unless the existing institutions, and the environment in which they operate, are also reformed.
Harun, H., Wardhaningtyas, S., Khan, H. Z., An, Y., & Masdar, R. (2019). Understanding the institutional challenges and impacts of higher education reforms in Indonesia. Public Money and Management, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540962.2019.1627063