Unpacking resilience in food webs

An emergent property or a sum of the parts?

Ross M. Thompson, Richard Williams

    Research output: A Conference proceeding or a Chapter in BookChapter

    Abstract

    Introduction Disturbance is a pervasive force in ecology. Understanding how disturbance influences natural systems is of growing importance as human impacts become increasingly widespread and drive changes in the magnitude and frequency of disturbance events (e.g., Archibald et al., 2012; Bellard et al., 2012). Critical to managing the effects of disturbance is gaining an understanding of what characteristics of natural communities allow them to persist in the face of disturbance. This endeavor has a long history. Early ecologists concluded that diversity begat stability based on observations of naturally fluctuating systems (e.g., Lindeman, 1942, see Rooney and McCann, 2012). These views were challenged by modeling work in the 1970s (e.g., May, 1972) which found that in highly simplified ecological models, diversity resulted in dynamic instability. Models in later years, which incorporated realistic distributions of link strengths and non-equilibrium dynamics, have yielded the hypothesis that diverse systems are stabilized by a complex net of weak interactions (e.g., Yodzis, 1981; McCann, 2000). Key to the concept of “stability” in ecological systems is the idea of dynamic responses that allow systems to “rebound” to their previous state after disturbance. Holling (1973) called this “ecological resilience.” Fundamental to the idea of resilience is that there are multiple stable states in which an ecosystem can exist, and which have characteristics that maintain those states (Walker et al., 2004). In food-web ecology, this is considered as the tendency of a food web to return to its original topology after a disturbance event (McCann, 2000). The mechanisms that underlie resilience in food webs can be divided into three groups (Figure 7.1). The first is that the individual nodes (populations of species) within the food web have resilient traits, such that when the populations are subject to disturbance, they are able to persist and recover. We term this “nodal resilience” (Figure 7.1a). Nodal resilience of a taxon is not affected by the impacts of disturbance on its resources or consumers, but rather is a direct consequence of the taxon's traits. Resilient traits of taxa can be extremely diverse but include the ability to seek refugia, resting stages that protect against disturbance, and life-history characteristics favoring fast reproduction (Townsend et al., 1997; Bolnick et al., 2011; De Lange et al., 2013).

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationAdaptive Food Webs
    Subtitle of host publicationStability and Transitions of Real and Model Ecosystems
    EditorsJohn C Moore, Peter C de Ruiter, Kevin S McCann, Volkmar Wolters
    Place of PublicationCambridge
    PublisherCambridge University Press
    Pages88-104
    Number of pages17
    ISBN (Electronic)9781316871867
    ISBN (Print)9781107182110
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017

    Fingerprint

    Food Chain
    food webs
    food web
    disturbance
    Ecology
    Ecosystem
    ecology
    ecologists
    refuge habitats
    strength (mechanics)
    topology
    Population
    anthropogenic activities
    Reproduction
    History
    life history
    history
    ecosystems
    resting stage
    refugium

    Cite this

    Thompson, R. M., & Williams, R. (2017). Unpacking resilience in food webs: An emergent property or a sum of the parts? In J. C. Moore, P. C. de Ruiter, K. S. McCann, & V. Wolters (Eds.), Adaptive Food Webs: Stability and Transitions of Real and Model Ecosystems (pp. 88-104). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316871867.009
    Thompson, Ross M. ; Williams, Richard. / Unpacking resilience in food webs : An emergent property or a sum of the parts?. Adaptive Food Webs: Stability and Transitions of Real and Model Ecosystems. editor / John C Moore ; Peter C de Ruiter ; Kevin S McCann ; Volkmar Wolters. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2017. pp. 88-104
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    abstract = "Introduction Disturbance is a pervasive force in ecology. Understanding how disturbance influences natural systems is of growing importance as human impacts become increasingly widespread and drive changes in the magnitude and frequency of disturbance events (e.g., Archibald et al., 2012; Bellard et al., 2012). Critical to managing the effects of disturbance is gaining an understanding of what characteristics of natural communities allow them to persist in the face of disturbance. This endeavor has a long history. Early ecologists concluded that diversity begat stability based on observations of naturally fluctuating systems (e.g., Lindeman, 1942, see Rooney and McCann, 2012). These views were challenged by modeling work in the 1970s (e.g., May, 1972) which found that in highly simplified ecological models, diversity resulted in dynamic instability. Models in later years, which incorporated realistic distributions of link strengths and non-equilibrium dynamics, have yielded the hypothesis that diverse systems are stabilized by a complex net of weak interactions (e.g., Yodzis, 1981; McCann, 2000). Key to the concept of “stability” in ecological systems is the idea of dynamic responses that allow systems to “rebound” to their previous state after disturbance. Holling (1973) called this “ecological resilience.” Fundamental to the idea of resilience is that there are multiple stable states in which an ecosystem can exist, and which have characteristics that maintain those states (Walker et al., 2004). In food-web ecology, this is considered as the tendency of a food web to return to its original topology after a disturbance event (McCann, 2000). The mechanisms that underlie resilience in food webs can be divided into three groups (Figure 7.1). The first is that the individual nodes (populations of species) within the food web have resilient traits, such that when the populations are subject to disturbance, they are able to persist and recover. We term this “nodal resilience” (Figure 7.1a). Nodal resilience of a taxon is not affected by the impacts of disturbance on its resources or consumers, but rather is a direct consequence of the taxon's traits. Resilient traits of taxa can be extremely diverse but include the ability to seek refugia, resting stages that protect against disturbance, and life-history characteristics favoring fast reproduction (Townsend et al., 1997; Bolnick et al., 2011; De Lange et al., 2013).",
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    Thompson, RM & Williams, R 2017, Unpacking resilience in food webs: An emergent property or a sum of the parts? in JC Moore, PC de Ruiter, KS McCann & V Wolters (eds), Adaptive Food Webs: Stability and Transitions of Real and Model Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 88-104. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316871867.009

    Unpacking resilience in food webs : An emergent property or a sum of the parts? / Thompson, Ross M.; Williams, Richard.

    Adaptive Food Webs: Stability and Transitions of Real and Model Ecosystems. ed. / John C Moore; Peter C de Ruiter; Kevin S McCann; Volkmar Wolters. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2017. p. 88-104.

    Research output: A Conference proceeding or a Chapter in BookChapter

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    N2 - Introduction Disturbance is a pervasive force in ecology. Understanding how disturbance influences natural systems is of growing importance as human impacts become increasingly widespread and drive changes in the magnitude and frequency of disturbance events (e.g., Archibald et al., 2012; Bellard et al., 2012). Critical to managing the effects of disturbance is gaining an understanding of what characteristics of natural communities allow them to persist in the face of disturbance. This endeavor has a long history. Early ecologists concluded that diversity begat stability based on observations of naturally fluctuating systems (e.g., Lindeman, 1942, see Rooney and McCann, 2012). These views were challenged by modeling work in the 1970s (e.g., May, 1972) which found that in highly simplified ecological models, diversity resulted in dynamic instability. Models in later years, which incorporated realistic distributions of link strengths and non-equilibrium dynamics, have yielded the hypothesis that diverse systems are stabilized by a complex net of weak interactions (e.g., Yodzis, 1981; McCann, 2000). Key to the concept of “stability” in ecological systems is the idea of dynamic responses that allow systems to “rebound” to their previous state after disturbance. Holling (1973) called this “ecological resilience.” Fundamental to the idea of resilience is that there are multiple stable states in which an ecosystem can exist, and which have characteristics that maintain those states (Walker et al., 2004). In food-web ecology, this is considered as the tendency of a food web to return to its original topology after a disturbance event (McCann, 2000). The mechanisms that underlie resilience in food webs can be divided into three groups (Figure 7.1). The first is that the individual nodes (populations of species) within the food web have resilient traits, such that when the populations are subject to disturbance, they are able to persist and recover. We term this “nodal resilience” (Figure 7.1a). Nodal resilience of a taxon is not affected by the impacts of disturbance on its resources or consumers, but rather is a direct consequence of the taxon's traits. Resilient traits of taxa can be extremely diverse but include the ability to seek refugia, resting stages that protect against disturbance, and life-history characteristics favoring fast reproduction (Townsend et al., 1997; Bolnick et al., 2011; De Lange et al., 2013).

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    Thompson RM, Williams R. Unpacking resilience in food webs: An emergent property or a sum of the parts? In Moore JC, de Ruiter PC, McCann KS, Wolters V, editors, Adaptive Food Webs: Stability and Transitions of Real and Model Ecosystems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2017. p. 88-104 https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316871867.009