Using silicone passive samplers to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wildfires in streams and potential acute effects for invertebrate communities

R Schäfer, Laurence Hearn, Ben Kefford, Jochen Mueller, Dayanthi Nugegoda

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    27 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Silicone rubber passive samplers spiked with 4 deuterated performance reference compounds were deployed for 29e33 days to estimate the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 9 streams in Victoria, Australia, following a wildfire. Silicone rubber strips of 2 thicknesses were used to obtain information on the status of uptake of the chemicals of interest at retrieval. In addition, we monitored the stream macroinvertebrate community for potential effects of PAHs or other fire organics. All selected PAHs were detected in the passive samplers and the sampling rates ranged from 0.5 to 50 L/day significantly varying between sites but not compounds, presumably due to differences in current velocity. The estimated water concentrations were 0.1e10 ng/L for total PAHs with phenanthrene, pyrene and fluoranthene accounting for 91% of the total concentration. All PAHs were a factor of 1000 or more below the reported 48-h median lethal concentrations (48-h LC50) for Daphnia magna. Two sites located closest to the fires exhibited elevated concentrations compared to the other sites and the passive samplers in these sites remained in the integrative uptake regime for all compounds, suggesting precipitation-associated PAH input. No acute toxic effects of PAHs or other fire organics on the invertebrate community were detected using a biotic index for organic toxicants (SPEAR), whereas a non-specific biotic index (SIGNAL) decreased in two sites indicating impacts fromchanges in other environmental parameters. We conclude (1) that silicone-based passive samplers with two different area-to-volume ratios represent a promising tool for determining organic toxicants and (2) that PAHs from wildfires are unlikely to be a common main cause for firerelated ecological effects in streams adjacent to burnt regions.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)4590-4600
    Number of pages11
    JournalWater Research
    Volume44
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Fingerprint

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
    wildfire
    Silicones
    sampler
    PAH
    invertebrate
    Fires
    rubber
    Rubber
    effect
    Invertebrates
    fluoranthene
    Pyrene
    phenanthrene
    pyrene
    macroinvertebrate
    Sampling
    sampling
    Water

    Cite this

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    abstract = "Silicone rubber passive samplers spiked with 4 deuterated performance reference compounds were deployed for 29e33 days to estimate the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 9 streams in Victoria, Australia, following a wildfire. Silicone rubber strips of 2 thicknesses were used to obtain information on the status of uptake of the chemicals of interest at retrieval. In addition, we monitored the stream macroinvertebrate community for potential effects of PAHs or other fire organics. All selected PAHs were detected in the passive samplers and the sampling rates ranged from 0.5 to 50 L/day significantly varying between sites but not compounds, presumably due to differences in current velocity. The estimated water concentrations were 0.1e10 ng/L for total PAHs with phenanthrene, pyrene and fluoranthene accounting for 91{\%} of the total concentration. All PAHs were a factor of 1000 or more below the reported 48-h median lethal concentrations (48-h LC50) for Daphnia magna. Two sites located closest to the fires exhibited elevated concentrations compared to the other sites and the passive samplers in these sites remained in the integrative uptake regime for all compounds, suggesting precipitation-associated PAH input. No acute toxic effects of PAHs or other fire organics on the invertebrate community were detected using a biotic index for organic toxicants (SPEAR), whereas a non-specific biotic index (SIGNAL) decreased in two sites indicating impacts fromchanges in other environmental parameters. We conclude (1) that silicone-based passive samplers with two different area-to-volume ratios represent a promising tool for determining organic toxicants and (2) that PAHs from wildfires are unlikely to be a common main cause for firerelated ecological effects in streams adjacent to burnt regions.",
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    author = "R Sch{\"a}fer and Laurence Hearn and Ben Kefford and Jochen Mueller and Dayanthi Nugegoda",
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    Using silicone passive samplers to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wildfires in streams and potential acute effects for invertebrate communities. / Schäfer, R; Hearn, Laurence; Kefford, Ben; Mueller, Jochen; Nugegoda, Dayanthi.

    In: Water Research, Vol. 44, 2010, p. 4590-4600.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Using silicone passive samplers to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wildfires in streams and potential acute effects for invertebrate communities

    AU - Schäfer, R

    AU - Hearn, Laurence

    AU - Kefford, Ben

    AU - Mueller, Jochen

    AU - Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    PY - 2010

    Y1 - 2010

    N2 - Silicone rubber passive samplers spiked with 4 deuterated performance reference compounds were deployed for 29e33 days to estimate the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 9 streams in Victoria, Australia, following a wildfire. Silicone rubber strips of 2 thicknesses were used to obtain information on the status of uptake of the chemicals of interest at retrieval. In addition, we monitored the stream macroinvertebrate community for potential effects of PAHs or other fire organics. All selected PAHs were detected in the passive samplers and the sampling rates ranged from 0.5 to 50 L/day significantly varying between sites but not compounds, presumably due to differences in current velocity. The estimated water concentrations were 0.1e10 ng/L for total PAHs with phenanthrene, pyrene and fluoranthene accounting for 91% of the total concentration. All PAHs were a factor of 1000 or more below the reported 48-h median lethal concentrations (48-h LC50) for Daphnia magna. Two sites located closest to the fires exhibited elevated concentrations compared to the other sites and the passive samplers in these sites remained in the integrative uptake regime for all compounds, suggesting precipitation-associated PAH input. No acute toxic effects of PAHs or other fire organics on the invertebrate community were detected using a biotic index for organic toxicants (SPEAR), whereas a non-specific biotic index (SIGNAL) decreased in two sites indicating impacts fromchanges in other environmental parameters. We conclude (1) that silicone-based passive samplers with two different area-to-volume ratios represent a promising tool for determining organic toxicants and (2) that PAHs from wildfires are unlikely to be a common main cause for firerelated ecological effects in streams adjacent to burnt regions.

    AB - Silicone rubber passive samplers spiked with 4 deuterated performance reference compounds were deployed for 29e33 days to estimate the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 9 streams in Victoria, Australia, following a wildfire. Silicone rubber strips of 2 thicknesses were used to obtain information on the status of uptake of the chemicals of interest at retrieval. In addition, we monitored the stream macroinvertebrate community for potential effects of PAHs or other fire organics. All selected PAHs were detected in the passive samplers and the sampling rates ranged from 0.5 to 50 L/day significantly varying between sites but not compounds, presumably due to differences in current velocity. The estimated water concentrations were 0.1e10 ng/L for total PAHs with phenanthrene, pyrene and fluoranthene accounting for 91% of the total concentration. All PAHs were a factor of 1000 or more below the reported 48-h median lethal concentrations (48-h LC50) for Daphnia magna. Two sites located closest to the fires exhibited elevated concentrations compared to the other sites and the passive samplers in these sites remained in the integrative uptake regime for all compounds, suggesting precipitation-associated PAH input. No acute toxic effects of PAHs or other fire organics on the invertebrate community were detected using a biotic index for organic toxicants (SPEAR), whereas a non-specific biotic index (SIGNAL) decreased in two sites indicating impacts fromchanges in other environmental parameters. We conclude (1) that silicone-based passive samplers with two different area-to-volume ratios represent a promising tool for determining organic toxicants and (2) that PAHs from wildfires are unlikely to be a common main cause for firerelated ecological effects in streams adjacent to burnt regions.

    KW - Passive sampling

    KW - Field study

    KW - Toxic effects

    KW - Stream invertebrates

    KW - Freshwater

    KW - Organic toxicants.

    U2 - 10.1016/j.watres.2010.05.044

    DO - 10.1016/j.watres.2010.05.044

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    SP - 4590

    EP - 4600

    JO - Water Research

    JF - Water Research

    SN - 0043-1354

    ER -