Virtual milk for modelling and simulation of dairy processes

M. T. Munir, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, D. I. Wilson, B. R. Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)
30 Downloads (Pure)


The modeling of dairy processing using a generic process simulator suffers from shortcomings, given that many simulators do not contain milk components in their component libraries. Recently, pseudo-milk components for a commercial process simulator were proposed for simulation and the current work extends this pseudo-milk concept by studying the effect of both total milk solids and temperature on key physical properties such as thermal conductivity, density, viscosity, and heat capacity. This paper also uses expanded fluid and power law models to predict milk viscosity over the temperature range from 4 to 75°C and develops a succinct regressed model for heat capacity as a function of temperature and fat composition. The pseudo-milk was validated by comparing the simulated and actual values of the physical properties of milk. The milk thermal conductivity, density, viscosity, and heat capacity showed differences of less than 2, 4, 3, and 1.5%, respectively, between the simulated results and actual values. This work extends the capabilities of the previously proposed pseudo-milk and of a process simulator to model dairy processes, processing different types of milk (e.g., whole milk, skim milk, and concentrated milk) with different intrinsic compositions, and to predict correct material and energy balances for dairy processes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3380-3395
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016
Externally publishedYes


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