Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is highly suggested as an emerging risk factor in primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. However, there remains controversy regarding the need for vitamin D supplementation in high CVD risk individuals to prevent cardiac episodes and to achieve a better prognosis. Another literature gap is the potential existence of sex-specific associations of this factor with major CVD events or surrogate markers. The interaction of vitamin D and its metabolites with gene-mediated paths as well as lifestyle parameters sets the hypothesis for different effect of this factor on vascular health between men and women. Areas covered: The aim of the systematic review was to summarize the hitherto data on the association of vitamin D with CVD prevention or progression, separately for men and women. Studies were eligible if they were published research epidemiological studies evaluating the gender-specific effect of vitamin D metabolic serum concentrations on CVD onset, progression or mortality. Expert opinion: An unequivocal association between vitamin D deficiency and CVD has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological studies yet with inconclusive remarks from the standpoint of sex-specific highlights. Epidemiological and experimental studies designed to draw conclusions specified in men and women are demanded.