Voxel-based supervised machine learning of peripheral zone prostate cancer using noncontrast multiparametric MRI

Neda Gholizadeh, John Simpson, Saadallah Ramadan, Jim Denham, Peter Lau, Sabbir Siddique, Jason Dowling, James Welsh, Stephan Chalup, Peter B. Greer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
27 Downloads (Pure)


Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and assess the performance of supervised machine learning technique to classify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxels as cancerous or noncancerous using noncontrast multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI), comprised of T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and advanced diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters. Materials and methods: In this work, 191 radiomic features were extracted from mp-MRI from prostate cancer patients. A comprehensive set of support vector machine (SVM) models for T2WI and mp-MRI (T2WI + DWI, T2WI + DTI, and T2WI + DWI + DTI) were developed based on novel Bayesian parameters optimization method and validated using leave-one-patient-out approach to eliminate any possible overfitting. The diagnostic performance of each model was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The average sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the models were evaluated using the test data set and the corresponding binary maps generated. Finally, the SVM plus sigmoid function of the models with the highest performance were used to produce cancer probability maps. Results: The T2WI + DWI + DTI models using the optimal feature subset achieved the best performance in prostate cancer detection, with the average AUROC, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 0.93 ± 0.03, 0.85 ± 0.05, 0.82 ± 0.07, and 0.83 ± 0.04, respectively. The average diagnostic performance of T2WI + DTI models was slightly higher than T2WI + DWI models (+3.52%) using the optimal radiomic features. Conclusions: Combination of noncontrast mp-MRI (T2WI, DWI, and DTI) features with the framework of a supervised classification technique and Bayesian optimization method are able to differentiate cancer from noncancer voxels with high accuracy and without administration of contrast agent. The addition of cancer probability maps provides additional functionality for image interpretation, lesion heterogeneity evaluation, and treatment management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-191
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020
Externally publishedYes


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