Weather and children's physical activity; How and why do relationships vary between countries?

Flo Harrison, Anna Goodman, E. M.F. van Sluijs, Lars Bo Andersen, G Cardon, Rachel Davey, Kathleen F. Janz, Susi Kriemler, Lynn Molloy, Angie S. Page, Russ Pate, Jardena Puder, Luis B. Sardinha, Anna Timperio, Niels Wedderkopp, Andy P. Jones, Sigmund Anderssen, G Cardon, Alan Cooper, Ulf Ekelund & 9 others D. W. Esliger, L. B. Sherar, Karsten Froberg, Pedro Hallal, Katarzyna Kordas, J Reilly, Jo Salmon, E. M.F. van Sluijs, on behalf the ICAD collaborators

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    Abstract

    Background: Globally most children do not engage in enough physical activity. Day length and weather conditions have been identified as determinants of physical activity, although how they may be overcome as barriers is not clear. We aim to examine if and how relationships between children's physical activity and weather and day length vary between countries and identify settings in which children were better able to maintain activity levels given the weather conditions they experienced. Methods: In this repeated measures study, we used data from 23,451 participants in the International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD). Daily accelerometer-measured physical activity (counts per minute; cpm) was matched to local weather conditions and the relationships assessed using multilevel regression models. Multilevel models accounted for clustering of days within occasions within children within study-cities, and allowed us to explore if and how the relationships between weather variables and physical activity differ by setting. Results: Increased precipitation and wind speed were associated with decreased cpm while better visibility and more hours of daylight were associated with increased cpm. Models indicated that increases in these variables resulted in average changes in mean cpm of 7.6/h of day length, -13.2/cm precipitation, 10.3/10 km visibility and -10.3/10kph wind speed (all p < 0.01). Temperature showed a cubic relationship with cpm, although between 0 and 20 degrees C the relationship was broadly linear. Age showed interactions with temperature and precipitation, with the associations larger among younger children. In terms of geographic trends, participants from Northern European countries and Melbourne, Australia were the most active, and also better maintained their activity levels given the weather conditions they experienced compared to those in the US and Western Europe. Conclusions: We found variation in the relationship between weather conditions and physical activity between ICAD studies and settings. Children in Northern Europe and Melbourne, Australia were not only more active on average, but also more active given the weather conditions they experienced. Future work should consider strategies to mitigate the impacts of weather conditions, especially among young children, and interventions involving changes to the physical environment should consider how they will operate in different weather conditions.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number74
    Pages (from-to)1-13
    Number of pages13
    JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
    Volume14
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 30 May 2017

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    Weather
    Exercise
    Accelerometry
    Databases
    Temperature
    Cluster Analysis

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    Harrison, F., Goodman, A., van Sluijs, E. M. F., Andersen, L. B., Cardon, G., Davey, R., ... on behalf the ICAD collaborators (2017). Weather and children's physical activity; How and why do relationships vary between countries? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 1-13. [74]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0526-7
    Harrison, Flo ; Goodman, Anna ; van Sluijs, E. M.F. ; Andersen, Lars Bo ; Cardon, G ; Davey, Rachel ; Janz, Kathleen F. ; Kriemler, Susi ; Molloy, Lynn ; Page, Angie S. ; Pate, Russ ; Puder, Jardena ; Sardinha, Luis B. ; Timperio, Anna ; Wedderkopp, Niels ; Jones, Andy P. ; Anderssen, Sigmund ; Cardon, G ; Cooper, Alan ; Ekelund, Ulf ; Esliger, D. W. ; Sherar, L. B. ; Froberg, Karsten ; Hallal, Pedro ; Kordas, Katarzyna ; Reilly, J ; Salmon, Jo ; van Sluijs, E. M.F. ; on behalf the ICAD collaborators. / Weather and children's physical activity; How and why do relationships vary between countries?. In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2017 ; Vol. 14, No. 1. pp. 1-13.
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    title = "Weather and children's physical activity; How and why do relationships vary between countries?",
    abstract = "Background: Globally most children do not engage in enough physical activity. Day length and weather conditions have been identified as determinants of physical activity, although how they may be overcome as barriers is not clear. We aim to examine if and how relationships between children's physical activity and weather and day length vary between countries and identify settings in which children were better able to maintain activity levels given the weather conditions they experienced. Methods: In this repeated measures study, we used data from 23,451 participants in the International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD). Daily accelerometer-measured physical activity (counts per minute; cpm) was matched to local weather conditions and the relationships assessed using multilevel regression models. Multilevel models accounted for clustering of days within occasions within children within study-cities, and allowed us to explore if and how the relationships between weather variables and physical activity differ by setting. Results: Increased precipitation and wind speed were associated with decreased cpm while better visibility and more hours of daylight were associated with increased cpm. Models indicated that increases in these variables resulted in average changes in mean cpm of 7.6/h of day length, -13.2/cm precipitation, 10.3/10 km visibility and -10.3/10kph wind speed (all p < 0.01). Temperature showed a cubic relationship with cpm, although between 0 and 20 degrees C the relationship was broadly linear. Age showed interactions with temperature and precipitation, with the associations larger among younger children. In terms of geographic trends, participants from Northern European countries and Melbourne, Australia were the most active, and also better maintained their activity levels given the weather conditions they experienced compared to those in the US and Western Europe. Conclusions: We found variation in the relationship between weather conditions and physical activity between ICAD studies and settings. Children in Northern Europe and Melbourne, Australia were not only more active on average, but also more active given the weather conditions they experienced. Future work should consider strategies to mitigate the impacts of weather conditions, especially among young children, and interventions involving changes to the physical environment should consider how they will operate in different weather conditions.",
    keywords = "Adolescent, Child, ICAD, Physical activity, Season, Weather",
    author = "Flo Harrison and Anna Goodman and {van Sluijs}, {E. M.F.} and Andersen, {Lars Bo} and G Cardon and Rachel Davey and Janz, {Kathleen F.} and Susi Kriemler and Lynn Molloy and Page, {Angie S.} and Russ Pate and Jardena Puder and Sardinha, {Luis B.} and Anna Timperio and Niels Wedderkopp and Jones, {Andy P.} and Sigmund Anderssen and G Cardon and Alan Cooper and Ulf Ekelund and Esliger, {D. W.} and Sherar, {L. B.} and Karsten Froberg and Pedro Hallal and Katarzyna Kordas and J Reilly and Jo Salmon and {van Sluijs}, {E. M.F.} and {on behalf the ICAD collaborators}",
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    Harrison, F, Goodman, A, van Sluijs, EMF, Andersen, LB, Cardon, G, Davey, R, Janz, KF, Kriemler, S, Molloy, L, Page, AS, Pate, R, Puder, J, Sardinha, LB, Timperio, A, Wedderkopp, N, Jones, AP, Anderssen, S, Cardon, G, Cooper, A, Ekelund, U, Esliger, DW, Sherar, LB, Froberg, K, Hallal, P, Kordas, K, Reilly, J, Salmon, J, van Sluijs, EMF & on behalf the ICAD collaborators 2017, 'Weather and children's physical activity; How and why do relationships vary between countries?', International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 14, no. 1, 74, pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0526-7

    Weather and children's physical activity; How and why do relationships vary between countries? / Harrison, Flo; Goodman, Anna; van Sluijs, E. M.F.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Cardon, G; Davey, Rachel; Janz, Kathleen F.; Kriemler, Susi; Molloy, Lynn; Page, Angie S.; Pate, Russ; Puder, Jardena; Sardinha, Luis B.; Timperio, Anna; Wedderkopp, Niels; Jones, Andy P.; Anderssen, Sigmund; Cardon, G; Cooper, Alan; Ekelund, Ulf; Esliger, D. W.; Sherar, L. B.; Froberg, Karsten; Hallal, Pedro; Kordas, Katarzyna; Reilly, J; Salmon, Jo; van Sluijs, E. M.F.; on behalf the ICAD collaborators.

    In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol. 14, No. 1, 74, 30.05.2017, p. 1-13.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Weather and children's physical activity; How and why do relationships vary between countries?

    AU - Harrison, Flo

    AU - Goodman, Anna

    AU - van Sluijs, E. M.F.

    AU - Andersen, Lars Bo

    AU - Cardon, G

    AU - Davey, Rachel

    AU - Janz, Kathleen F.

    AU - Kriemler, Susi

    AU - Molloy, Lynn

    AU - Page, Angie S.

    AU - Pate, Russ

    AU - Puder, Jardena

    AU - Sardinha, Luis B.

    AU - Timperio, Anna

    AU - Wedderkopp, Niels

    AU - Jones, Andy P.

    AU - Anderssen, Sigmund

    AU - Cardon, G

    AU - Cooper, Alan

    AU - Ekelund, Ulf

    AU - Esliger, D. W.

    AU - Sherar, L. B.

    AU - Froberg, Karsten

    AU - Hallal, Pedro

    AU - Kordas, Katarzyna

    AU - Reilly, J

    AU - Salmon, Jo

    AU - van Sluijs, E. M.F.

    AU - on behalf the ICAD collaborators

    PY - 2017/5/30

    Y1 - 2017/5/30

    N2 - Background: Globally most children do not engage in enough physical activity. Day length and weather conditions have been identified as determinants of physical activity, although how they may be overcome as barriers is not clear. We aim to examine if and how relationships between children's physical activity and weather and day length vary between countries and identify settings in which children were better able to maintain activity levels given the weather conditions they experienced. Methods: In this repeated measures study, we used data from 23,451 participants in the International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD). Daily accelerometer-measured physical activity (counts per minute; cpm) was matched to local weather conditions and the relationships assessed using multilevel regression models. Multilevel models accounted for clustering of days within occasions within children within study-cities, and allowed us to explore if and how the relationships between weather variables and physical activity differ by setting. Results: Increased precipitation and wind speed were associated with decreased cpm while better visibility and more hours of daylight were associated with increased cpm. Models indicated that increases in these variables resulted in average changes in mean cpm of 7.6/h of day length, -13.2/cm precipitation, 10.3/10 km visibility and -10.3/10kph wind speed (all p < 0.01). Temperature showed a cubic relationship with cpm, although between 0 and 20 degrees C the relationship was broadly linear. Age showed interactions with temperature and precipitation, with the associations larger among younger children. In terms of geographic trends, participants from Northern European countries and Melbourne, Australia were the most active, and also better maintained their activity levels given the weather conditions they experienced compared to those in the US and Western Europe. Conclusions: We found variation in the relationship between weather conditions and physical activity between ICAD studies and settings. Children in Northern Europe and Melbourne, Australia were not only more active on average, but also more active given the weather conditions they experienced. Future work should consider strategies to mitigate the impacts of weather conditions, especially among young children, and interventions involving changes to the physical environment should consider how they will operate in different weather conditions.

    AB - Background: Globally most children do not engage in enough physical activity. Day length and weather conditions have been identified as determinants of physical activity, although how they may be overcome as barriers is not clear. We aim to examine if and how relationships between children's physical activity and weather and day length vary between countries and identify settings in which children were better able to maintain activity levels given the weather conditions they experienced. Methods: In this repeated measures study, we used data from 23,451 participants in the International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD). Daily accelerometer-measured physical activity (counts per minute; cpm) was matched to local weather conditions and the relationships assessed using multilevel regression models. Multilevel models accounted for clustering of days within occasions within children within study-cities, and allowed us to explore if and how the relationships between weather variables and physical activity differ by setting. Results: Increased precipitation and wind speed were associated with decreased cpm while better visibility and more hours of daylight were associated with increased cpm. Models indicated that increases in these variables resulted in average changes in mean cpm of 7.6/h of day length, -13.2/cm precipitation, 10.3/10 km visibility and -10.3/10kph wind speed (all p < 0.01). Temperature showed a cubic relationship with cpm, although between 0 and 20 degrees C the relationship was broadly linear. Age showed interactions with temperature and precipitation, with the associations larger among younger children. In terms of geographic trends, participants from Northern European countries and Melbourne, Australia were the most active, and also better maintained their activity levels given the weather conditions they experienced compared to those in the US and Western Europe. Conclusions: We found variation in the relationship between weather conditions and physical activity between ICAD studies and settings. Children in Northern Europe and Melbourne, Australia were not only more active on average, but also more active given the weather conditions they experienced. Future work should consider strategies to mitigate the impacts of weather conditions, especially among young children, and interventions involving changes to the physical environment should consider how they will operate in different weather conditions.

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    KW - Child

    KW - ICAD

    KW - Physical activity

    KW - Season

    KW - Weather

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