Well-being in wounds inventory (WOWI)

development of a valid and reliable measure of well-being in patients with wounds

Dominic UPTON, Penney Upton, Rebecca Alexander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


Physical and psychosocial deficits have been reported in people living with chronic wounds. While the negative impact of these factors on an individual's quality of life (QoL) is well documented, there has been little research into the well-being of those living with chronic wounds, despite recent calls for increased attention to this related, yet distinct construct. This paper introduces the Well-being in Wounds Inventory (WOWI) and provides support for the WOWI as a valid and reliable measure of well-being in patients living with chronic wounds.
A draft questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of individuals with chronic wounds (n=85) and the resulting data subject to factor analysis in order to refine the structure of the questionnaire. The reliability, validity and responsiveness of the resulting questionnaire were then tested by administration to a second sample of individuals with wounds (n=49). Socio-demographic data, issues affecting patient well-being and well-being factors, such as, emotions; perceived coping skills; social support; personal control; hope for the future, were measured.
Results confirmed the WOWI as a reliable and valid measure of well-being. Items loaded onto two subscales, 'personal resources' and 'wound worries'. Analysis revealed the WOWI to be highly feasible measure of well-being, with good test-retest reliability and responsiveness to changes in health status.
The current study highlights the importance of assessing well-being factors in individuals living with chronic wounds. It introduces the WOWI as a valid and reliable measure of well-being in chronic wound patients. The authors recommend health-care practitioners take account of well-being as part of a holistic treatment plan in order to maximise patient outcomes.
This project was funded by Urgo Medical. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)114-120
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Wound Care
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2016


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