Whey: A Potential Substrate for the Production of Natural Pigments

Anwar Ali, Aleena Tahir, Quratulain Babar, Waseem Khalid, Ahmal Khan, Rati Jani, Nenad Naumovski, Xin-An Zeng, Muhammad faisal Manzoor

Research output: A Conference proceeding or a Chapter in BookChapterpeer-review


Whey is a spin-off by-product from the paneer, cheese, and casein firms and is regarded as a dairy squander. The production of whey ranges from 180 million tons to 1900 million tons yearly. Whey is a significant contaminant due to the number of raw materials it contains. Due to its high biological and chemical oxygen requirements, it presents a considerable threat to the ecosystem. Whey contains 4.5–5.0% lactose, 0.6–0.7% protein, and 0.4–0.5% lipids, and it is a good carrier of vitamins, and minerals. Because of its rich nutritional extent, it provides valuable substrate for the microbes required to make natural colors. This chapter investigates manufacturing processes of several types of pigments from whey, a low-cost substrate, and the applications of such pigments in diverse industries. This chapter focuses on different natural pigment types, stability, ways to increase their production, and their function in the circular economy. Whey is used to create natural colors. Adding it to food products enhances its antioxidant properties, which contribute to health improvement by chelating free groups from the body and enhancing the color of food. The sustainable habituation of whey to produce natural colors may improve the biological foundation of the economies of many industries and, as a result, the entire national and global economy. It may be possible to produce natural colors more effectively and sustainably using whey. The circular economy and sustainability strategy will benefit reliant firms and health-conscious consumers. The main topic of this chapter is the possible use of whey for the synthesis of natural colors employing a range of species.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWhey Valorization
Subtitle of host publicationInnovations, Technological Advancements and Sustainable Exploitation
EditorsAmrita Poonia, Anka Trajkovska Petkoska
Place of PublicationSingapore
PublisherSpringer Nature Singapore
Number of pages27
ISBN (Electronic)9789819954599
ISBN (Print)9789819954582
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2023


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