Widespread convergence in toxin resistance by predictable molecular evolution

Beata Ujvari, N Casewell, K Sunagar, K Arbuckle, W Wuster, N Lo, C Beckmann, G King, E Deplazes, T Madsen, D Hillis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The question about whether evolution is unpredictable and stochastic or intermittently constrained along predictable pathways is the subject of a fundamental debate in biology, in which understanding convergent evolution plays a central role. At the molecular level, documented examples of convergence are rare and limited to occurring within specific taxonomic groups. Here we provide evidence of constrained convergent molecular evolution across the metazoan tree of life. We show that resistance to toxic cardiac glycosides produced by plants and bufonid toads is mediated by similar molecular changes to the sodium-potassium-pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) in insects, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. In toad-feeding reptiles, resistance is conferred by two point mutations that have evolved convergently on four occasions, whereas evidence of a molecular reversal back to the susceptible state in varanid lizards migrating to toad-free areas suggests that toxin resistance is maladaptive in the absence of selection. Importantly, resistance in all taxa is mediated by replacements of 2 of the 12 amino acids comprising the Na+/K+-ATPase H1-H2 extracellular domain that constitutes a core part of the cardiac glycoside binding site. We provide mechanistic insight into the basis of resistance by showing that these alterations perturb the interaction between the cardiac glycoside bufalin and the Na+/K+-ATPase. Thus, similar selection pressures have resulted in convergent evolution of the same molecular solution across the breadth of the animal kingdom, demonstrating how a scarcity of possible solutions to a selective challenge can lead to highly predictable evolutionary responses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11911-11916
Number of pages6
JournalNational Academy of Sciences. Proceedings
Volume112
Issue number38
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

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sodium-potassium-exchanging ATPase
cardiac glycosides
toxins
toads
convergent evolution
reptiles
biological resistance
point mutation
lizards
amphibians
binding sites
mammals
Biological Sciences
insects
amino acids
animals

Cite this

Ujvari, B., Casewell, N., Sunagar, K., Arbuckle, K., Wuster, W., Lo, N., ... Hillis, D. (2015). Widespread convergence in toxin resistance by predictable molecular evolution. National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings, 112(38), 11911-11916. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1511706112
Ujvari, Beata ; Casewell, N ; Sunagar, K ; Arbuckle, K ; Wuster, W ; Lo, N ; Beckmann, C ; King, G ; Deplazes, E ; Madsen, T ; Hillis, D. / Widespread convergence in toxin resistance by predictable molecular evolution. In: National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings. 2015 ; Vol. 112, No. 38. pp. 11911-11916.
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Ujvari, B, Casewell, N, Sunagar, K, Arbuckle, K, Wuster, W, Lo, N, Beckmann, C, King, G, Deplazes, E, Madsen, T & Hillis, D 2015, 'Widespread convergence in toxin resistance by predictable molecular evolution', National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings, vol. 112, no. 38, pp. 11911-11916. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1511706112

Widespread convergence in toxin resistance by predictable molecular evolution. / Ujvari, Beata; Casewell, N; Sunagar, K; Arbuckle, K; Wuster, W; Lo, N; Beckmann, C; King, G; Deplazes, E; Madsen, T; Hillis, D.

In: National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings, Vol. 112, No. 38, 2015, p. 11911-11916.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Widespread convergence in toxin resistance by predictable molecular evolution

AU - Ujvari, Beata

AU - Casewell, N

AU - Sunagar, K

AU - Arbuckle, K

AU - Wuster, W

AU - Lo, N

AU - Beckmann, C

AU - King, G

AU - Deplazes, E

AU - Madsen, T

AU - Hillis, D

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AB - The question about whether evolution is unpredictable and stochastic or intermittently constrained along predictable pathways is the subject of a fundamental debate in biology, in which understanding convergent evolution plays a central role. At the molecular level, documented examples of convergence are rare and limited to occurring within specific taxonomic groups. Here we provide evidence of constrained convergent molecular evolution across the metazoan tree of life. We show that resistance to toxic cardiac glycosides produced by plants and bufonid toads is mediated by similar molecular changes to the sodium-potassium-pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) in insects, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. In toad-feeding reptiles, resistance is conferred by two point mutations that have evolved convergently on four occasions, whereas evidence of a molecular reversal back to the susceptible state in varanid lizards migrating to toad-free areas suggests that toxin resistance is maladaptive in the absence of selection. Importantly, resistance in all taxa is mediated by replacements of 2 of the 12 amino acids comprising the Na+/K+-ATPase H1-H2 extracellular domain that constitutes a core part of the cardiac glycoside binding site. We provide mechanistic insight into the basis of resistance by showing that these alterations perturb the interaction between the cardiac glycoside bufalin and the Na+/K+-ATPase. Thus, similar selection pressures have resulted in convergent evolution of the same molecular solution across the breadth of the animal kingdom, demonstrating how a scarcity of possible solutions to a selective challenge can lead to highly predictable evolutionary responses.

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DO - 10.1073/pnas.1511706112

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