Within-subject haemoglobin variation in elite athletes

A longitudinal investigation of 13 887 haemoglobin concentration readings

Louisa M. Lobigs, Emma J. Knight, Yorck Olaf Schumacher, Christopher J. Gore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) estimates individualized reference ranges for key blood markers, such as haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), using predetermined population mean, between- and within-subject variances. Here, we aim to reassess previously published estimates for within-subject [Hb] variance and determine whether sex-, analyzer-, sport-, or season-specific values are required. Our reference population contains 7723 male (mean±SD, 22.3±4.6years of age) and 6164 female (21.6±4.3) athlete observations from 49 sports. [Hb] was calculated using one of three cytometers; Bayer-H3 (1997-1999, n=4554), ADVIA-120 (1999-2010, n=8636) and Sysmex XT-2000i (2010-2012, n=697). The final model was a linear mixed model for [Hb] with analyzer (H3, ADVIA, Sysmex), sex (male, female), sport (power-endurance, endurance, skill, team, disabled and non-athletes), season (summer, winter), and the interaction between sex and sport as fixed effects and athlete as a random effect. The model included an exponential correlation structure to allow for within-subject autocorrelation, and allowed different within-subject variances for each sport. Within-subject [Hb] variance (g2/L2) was significantly less for power endurance (35.09, 95% CI 33.50 to 36.76), disabled (25.82, 95% CI 21.71 to 35.28) and non-athletes (34.30, 95% CI 28.53 to 35.87) than for endurance (40.35, 95% CI 39.62 to 47.22) and team sports (38.70, 95% CI 37.68 to 39.76) athletes. No new evidence was found to justify adjusting the current within-subject [Hb] variance estimate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)228-234
Number of pages7
JournalDrug Testing and Analysis
Volume8
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2016
Externally publishedYes

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hemoglobin
Sports
sport
Athletes
Reading
Hemoglobins
Durability
Autocorrelation
autocorrelation
Population
Linear Models
Reference Values
Blood
blood
winter
summer

Cite this

Lobigs, Louisa M. ; Knight, Emma J. ; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf ; Gore, Christopher J. / Within-subject haemoglobin variation in elite athletes : A longitudinal investigation of 13 887 haemoglobin concentration readings. In: Drug Testing and Analysis. 2016 ; Vol. 8, No. 2. pp. 228-234.
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abstract = "The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) estimates individualized reference ranges for key blood markers, such as haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), using predetermined population mean, between- and within-subject variances. Here, we aim to reassess previously published estimates for within-subject [Hb] variance and determine whether sex-, analyzer-, sport-, or season-specific values are required. Our reference population contains 7723 male (mean±SD, 22.3±4.6years of age) and 6164 female (21.6±4.3) athlete observations from 49 sports. [Hb] was calculated using one of three cytometers; Bayer-H3 (1997-1999, n=4554), ADVIA-120 (1999-2010, n=8636) and Sysmex XT-2000i (2010-2012, n=697). The final model was a linear mixed model for [Hb] with analyzer (H3, ADVIA, Sysmex), sex (male, female), sport (power-endurance, endurance, skill, team, disabled and non-athletes), season (summer, winter), and the interaction between sex and sport as fixed effects and athlete as a random effect. The model included an exponential correlation structure to allow for within-subject autocorrelation, and allowed different within-subject variances for each sport. Within-subject [Hb] variance (g2/L2) was significantly less for power endurance (35.09, 95{\%} CI 33.50 to 36.76), disabled (25.82, 95{\%} CI 21.71 to 35.28) and non-athletes (34.30, 95{\%} CI 28.53 to 35.87) than for endurance (40.35, 95{\%} CI 39.62 to 47.22) and team sports (38.70, 95{\%} CI 37.68 to 39.76) athletes. No new evidence was found to justify adjusting the current within-subject [Hb] variance estimate.",
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Within-subject haemoglobin variation in elite athletes : A longitudinal investigation of 13 887 haemoglobin concentration readings. / Lobigs, Louisa M.; Knight, Emma J.; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Gore, Christopher J.

In: Drug Testing and Analysis, Vol. 8, No. 2, 01.02.2016, p. 228-234.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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