Words That Hurt: A Qualitative Study of Parental Verbal Abuse in the Philippines

Jennifer Loh, Flora Calleja, Simon Lloyd D Restubog

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


This article investigated opinions on what constitute parental abuse with interviews of 30 high school students, 30 parents, and 28 counselors. Despite increased reported cases of emotional abuses and child maltreatments in the Philippines, few empirical studies have explored the exact nature of parental verbal abuses in this country. This study is designed to address this gap in the literature. The results revealed nine categories of parental verbal abuses namely: (a) Put downs and shaming, (b) Rejection, (c) Blaming, (d) Fault Exaggerating, (e) Threat, (f) Invoking harm, (g) Regrets, (h) Unfair comparison, and (i) Negative prediction. Implications for research and practice were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2244-2263
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Interpersonal Violence
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2011
Externally publishedYes


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