There is widespread recognition that workplace stress can have profound negative impacts on nurses’ well-being and practice. Resilience is a process of positive adaptation to stress and adversity. This study aimed to describe mental health nurses’ most challenging workplace stressors, and their psychological well-being, workplace resilience, and level of caring behaviours, explore the relationships between these factors, and describe differences in workplace resilience for sociodemographic characteristics. In a descriptive correlational study using convenience sampling, data were collected from N = 498 nurses working in mental health roles or settings in Victoria Australia via an online cross-sectional survey. Key findings included weak to strong (r = 0.301 to r = 0.750) positive relationships between workplace resilience with psychological well-being across all stressor categories (consumer/carer; colleague; organizational role; and organizational service). Psychological well-being was moderately high, but lower for nurses indicating consumer/carer-related stressors as their most stressful challenge. There were weak to moderate (r = 0.306 to r = 0.549) positive relationships between workplace resilience and psychological well-being, and no relationship between resilience and caring behaviours. Workplace resilience was lower (P < 0.05) for less experienced nurses compared with those with >5 years’ experience, and lower for younger nurses compared with those aged ≥40 years. To improve their resilience and prevent psychological distress, there is prime opportunity to support nursing students with well-being and resilience-building strategies during their undergraduate education, and to support new graduates with similar programmes when they enter the workforce.