The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of cross-age tutoring upon leadership style and self-esteem for the tutors, and children's attitudes toward physical activity and motivation to participate in sport for primary school children. Although the process of peer tutoring and/or cross-age tutoring is not a new concept, this form of transmission of information and skill within the educational sporting environment in Australia, and particularly in the A.C.T, is relatively new, and is an area which has received very little empirical attention. Comparisons between the three cross-age tutoring programs were made in terms of primary school students' attitudes toward physical activity and motivation to participate in sport, as well as leadership style and self-esteem for the tutors. Four hundred and eighty-eight primary school students (7 to 12 years of age) were administered an adaptation of Gill, Gross,& Huddleston's (1982) Participation Motivation Questionnaire; and Schutz, Smoll, & Wood's (1985) Children's Attitudes Towards Physical Activity Inventory, both before the program and again at the end of the program. Further, one hundred and twenty-six secondary students (from Years 9 & 10) were administered an adaptation of Cooper-smith's (1967) Self-Esteem Inventory; and a modified version of Chelladurai's (1980) Leadership Scale for Sports. A modified questionnaire from Clough & Traill's (1992) Sportsfun program evaluation was designed and implemented to measure attitudes about participating in sporting activities, as well as to obtain ideas about changes or benefits for each group from their viewpoint. This evaluation sheet was given to the tutors and tutees following the completion of the program Statistical analyses revealed that involvement in cross-age tutoring programs in the field of sport and physical education did not provide significant results in the areas of self-esteem or leadership style for the tutors, or in the areas of attitudes towards physical activity or participation motivation for the tutees. In other words, these results indicated that the act of participation in a cross-age tutoring program in sport and physical activity did not enhance and develop these attributes for either the tutors or the tutees. Conversely, though, the results did not reveal significant outcomes to indicate that participation in a cross-age tutoring program would lower or negatively affect the existing levels of self-esteem, leadership behaviour, attitudes towards physical activity or motivation to participate in sporting activities for the tutors or tutees. However, from the qualitative data obtained during the interview questionnaire following participation in the cross-age tutoring programs, it could be concluded that cross-age tutoring programs in the area of sport and physical education have merit because they seem to serve different needs for the different groups of people involved in them, including the tutors, tutees, teachers and participating schools. By providing cross-age tutoring programs in sport, children and tutors have the opportunity to develop sports skills and enhance leadership/coaching abilities which are consistent with the participant's individual personalities and aspirations.
|Date of Award||1999|
|Supervisor||John Gross (Supervisor)|