Flipped learning in undergraduate English departments in Indonesia

  • Sigit Jati

    Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis


    Flipped learning (FL) has been emerging as an alternative in education that aims to accommodate interactive activities and promote learning independence for students. This study explores the implementation of FL in university English departments in Indonesia by observing classroom interaction (CI) and investigating the students’ learner autonomy (LA). It also seeks to capture perceptions of FL among stakeholders: the lecturers, heads of departments (HoDs), and students. The study employs a qualitative case study to capture the FL implementation process in five cases from four university English departments in the Indonesian provinces of West, Central, and East Java. Classroom observations, interviews with the lecturers and the HoDs, and focus group discussions (FGD) with the students were conducted to collect the data, which were then thematically analysed to answer the research questions. The study finds that all of the observed FL classes belonged to the two-phase model of FL: the pre-class phase, in which students prepared for the class using the materials and instructions shared by the lecturers, and the in-class phase, which involved interactive activities during the class such as discussions, role-plays, poster presentations, debates, and peer review. This in-class phase ended with the reflection phase led by the lecturers at the end of the sessions. During the observations, the interactivity during FL was observed. Students’ initiated interaction and students’ interaction time dominated the observed classes. The five lecturers mainly aimed to direct the classroom into interactive activities, ask questions to initiate interaction, and give information to assist students when they had difficulties. Confirming the observations, both lecturers and students agreed that the FL classes were interactive. From the interviews with the lecturers and focus group discussions with the students, FL accommodated the students’ LA in all four dimensions: technical, psychological, political-philosophical, and socio-cultural. In the technical dimension, FL encouraged the students to learn independently, expand their learning, embolden their learning goals, reflect on their learning progress, and plan for their learning. In addition, the flipped classroom was appropriate for the existing learning facilities at their disposal. In the psychological dimension, students became motivated to prepare and participate in classroom activities, experienced positive emotions such as excitement, relaxation, inspiration, and comfort, and believed that their learning needs were accommodated during the class. In the political-philosophical dimension, the students enjoyed the flexibility of FL, could anticipate the classroom activities, and expand their learning independently. In the socio-cultural dimension, the students enjoyed the interactions and the peer learning involved and believed that FL was culturally appropriate and fitted the curriculum in lower education levels, which aimed to accommodate student-centred activities. Both lecturers and HoDs reported positive perceptions of FL. The lecturers showed clear comprehension of FL and aimed to provide a better learning experience for the students. Specifically, the lecturers aimed to improve the students’ understanding, facilitate more practice and feedback, exemplify emerging teaching practice, and help less privileged students with materials. The lecturers complained about the additional work and commitment in implementing FL, IT problems, selecting suitable materials, and students’ unpreparedness. The HoDs believed that FL was suitable for the students considering increased levels of device usage. They expressed support for innovations in English language teaching (ELT) such as eLearning platforms and institutional policy. They also noted improvements required for FL, including eLearning, internet and electricity infrastructure. Students reported that FL helped them be more prepared and willing to participate in classroom activities, leading to a better learning experience. The lecturers were available to assist, the class became interactive and engaging, and they reported positive impressions of teaching professionalism and expertise. Regarding challenges, they complained about time limitations, study load, language problems, IT-related issues, distractions and classroom management issues. Some students identified a need for more materials, individual exercises, feedback from the lecturers, more time to prepare, and more organised interactions. This research provides insight into FL implementation. Specifically, this research points out how FL improves students’ learning experiences, CI, and LA. The study also elaborates on FL’s prevalence in Indonesian higher education institutions. Finally, this thesis calls for further research regarding FL in less-resourced areas; CI analysis with students to allow for deeper analysis of student interaction; LA research involving students’ notes, diaries, and other student-generated documents to understand better the students’ views on LA; an exploration of what students have learnt in the FL context, research that would compare FL in two phases with FL in three phases, and, lastly, FL post the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Date of Award2023
    Original languageEnglish
    SupervisorElke Stracke (Supervisor), Jeremy Jones (Supervisor) & Kate Wilson (Supervisor)

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