An animal model of respiratory infection was used to determine the effect of various factors, thought to influence the ability of the host to clear bacteria, on the host's innate response to an NTHi lung infection. Mucosal immunisation with NTHi has previously been shown to enhance the clearance of NTHi from the lung in an animal model of infection through the increased recruitment of phagocytes. Comparisons of cytokine and chemokine kinetic profiles were made in order to determine differences between innate and acquired immune response and the way in which mucosal immunisation controls the innate immune response to NTHi. Increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the early stages of NTHi lung infection enhanced the ability to clear bacteria from the rat lung in the immune animals through the increased recruitment of phagocytes to the site. Mucosal immunisation was found to alter the cytokine and chemokine mRNA profiles of CD4+ and CD8+ cells, with increased levels of MCP-1 protein being detected in both types of immune cells. An antecedent viral infection has been shown to increase the chance of developing a respiratory bacterial infection. The NTHi model of respiratory infection was used to characterise the effect that a viral infection had on the host response to the host's innate response to a bacterial infection and the ability to clear the bacteria. The host's ability to clear NTHi from the rat lung was enhanced by an antecedent viral infection through alterations to the innate immune response and the cytokine and chemokine kinetic profiles. The use of a mutant strain of NTHi deficient in a component of Lipooligosaccharide (LOS),Phosphorylcholine (ChoP),was utilised as a tool to characterise the innate immune response to LOS. Animals challenged with the LOS mutant strain had a reduced inflammatory response to NTHi through the decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the reduced recruitment of phagocytes to the site of infection. This thesis has contributed valuable information to enable a better understanding of the host's innate immune response to respiratory infection. This study has identified the role of cytokines and chemokines in the innate response to a respiratory bacterial infection and the enhanced ability of the host to clear NTHi from the lung.
|Date of Award||2008|
|Supervisor||Jenelle Kyd (Supervisor), Ruth Foxwell (Supervisor) & A Cripps (Supervisor)|